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The initial reaction to the monumental British triumph in the Seven Years' War, in North America called the French and Indian War, was an outburst of pride in both England and the colonies. That unity of spirit did not last long, however.Britain was now the master of a massive empire, but it quickly became apparent that a huge debt had been incurred in the process. George III's ministers prepared to reduce the debt and increase control over the colonies.The war soured many British military and political leaders' opinions about the American colonists. The change in perception included the following charges:
- American loyalties were found wanting. New England shipping interests had traded with the French in the West Indies during the conflict, which demonstrated a greater loyalty to profit than to the mother country.
- American soldiers had sometimes balked at pursuing the enemy in areas far from home and often performed badly under fire. British commanders held American soldiers in low regard and many had spoken openly about the colonists' lack of backbone.
- Colonial legislatures had been reluctant to provide funds for the cost of the conflict, but willingly accepted subsidies ordered from the Royal Treasury by William Pitt, the secretary of state. The colonies seemed more willing to rely on funds raised in Britain than to impose taxes at home.
These factors were especially galling to the British, who believed that the war had been fought largely for the colonists' benefit and concluded that the Americans were unappreciative and disloyal.The same set of facts was viewed differently in America. At the end of the war, many colonists agreed on the following:
- Elimination of the French threat in North America was viewed by many colonists as an invitation to move into the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. The Indians' strategic position had been greatly altered; their trump card — pitting the French against the British — had been removed from the deck. The unbridled expansionism of many Americans was the opposite of what British policymakers had in mind.
- Many Americans no longer felt the need for the presence of regular British soldiers in their towns and cities. Absence of the French foe enabled many colonists to concentrate on local and personal interests, not imperial concerns. A separate American identity was emerging and an increasing number of colonists no longer regarded themselves as British.
- An undercurrent of anger had long been a part of the colonial character, but following the war this feeling surfaced. Many men who had served honorably in the conflict deeply resented the British officers' condescending attitudes and refused to forget the many insults they had suffered in silence. The merchant class also seethed. Few accepted the need to curtail their profits in order to fit into the mercantilist mold. They wondered why the economic benefit of those far away was more important than their own.
The afterglow of a great victory could not hide a developing rift between the mother country and her colonies. Ironically, British efforts to tighten controls throughout the empire served to ignite the flame of revolution in America.
See French and Indian War Timeline.
See also Indian Wars Time Table.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, CONSEQUENCES OF
The capitulation of Montreal to British troops in September 1760 ended the French and Indian War in North America but ushered in a host of new problems for the British Empire. Previously, when European powers ended wars they exchanged conquered colonial possessions with an eye to keeping a balance of power between their American empires. This war, however, was different. It had begun in North America in an Anglo-French dispute over control of the Ohio Valley. British colonists, who had expended far more blood and treasure in this war than any prior one, were anxious for Britain to seize control of French Canada so that they might expand westward without threat of foreign reprisals. In Britain some policymakers argued for restoring Canada to the French but keeping the Caribbean sugar colony Guadeloupe, which British forces had also taken during the war. Others argued that Canada was far more valuable than a sugar colony because of its fur trade and the access it would provide to the continent's interior.
When the Peace of Paris was finally signed in 1763, the advocates for the retention of Canada won out. By the terms of the treaty, Britain acquired all of France's North American possessions east of the Mississippi River. In addition, Britain acquired Florida from Spain. The balance of power in North America had shifted decisively in Britain's favor, but so too had the costs of governing and defending imperial possessions there. Before the French and Indian War, British policymakers had looked upon the North American colonies chiefly as self-sustaining commercial enterprises, to be governed as cheaply as possible through the regulation of their trade. After the Treaty of Paris, British North America became a vast imperial dominion containing British subjects, conquered foreigners, and Native Americans all in need of government and protection from each other and external enemies.
The chief consequence of the French and Indian War, therefore, was a reorientation in Britain's perception and administration of its American colonies. This reorientation unfolded over the next dozen years, as British policymakers grappled with the expanded responsibilities and costs of their American empire. Their efforts fell into three broad categories shaped by the Peace of Paris: the maintenance of a North American army, the management of Indian affairs, and the government of new territories and peoples.
The acquisition of Canada and Florida made the maintenance of British troops in North America after the war a fait accompli. Colonial militias and provincial troops had proven themselves notoriously unreliable in garrison duty during the war, so British regulars were needed to police newly conquered subjects and to staff forts and posts abandoned by the French and Spanish. The British ministry planned to maintain about 7,500 British troops in North America, at an estimated annual cost of £350,000. This policy would add a substantial burden to a royal treasury already heavily indebted by the war effort. In 1764 Prime Minister George Grenville introduced the Sugar Act to Parliament, the first of a series of taxation measures pursued by the British ministry over the following decade designed to shift a portion of this financial burden onto the shoulders of the colonists, who, according to Grenville and his successors, could well afford to pay for it. The colonists, of course, saw it another way, and launched a series of protests, beginning with the Stamp Act riots in 1765, that condemned such measures as "taxation without representation."
Quartering of troops was another issue that arose out of the decision to maintain regular troops in America after the war. When the effort to raise tax revenues in America stalled, Parliament passed Quartering Acts in 1765, 1766, and 1774 that required the American colonists to provide barracks and supplies for the troops. Quartering had arisen as a point of contention during the French and Indian War in Massachusetts and New York, but local compromises and generous subsidies from the government ministry of William Pitt had helped paper over these differences. With the passage of the Quartering Act of 1765, the issue arose again, this time in the context of parliamentary efforts to tax the colonists without their consent. The colonial opposition to quartering intensified in 1768, when the ministry, in an attempt to cut expenses, ordered troops to vacate most western posts and relocate in eastern cities.
The administration of the army in North America after the French and Indian War was intertwined with British efforts to place Indian affairs under the centralized management of imperial officials. The French had maintained an extensive network of commercial and military alliances with Indian nations in the Great Lakes, Ohio, and Mississippi regions, playing the role of a diplomatic "father" who supplied his "children" with presents of trade goods and helped mediate their relations with traders, missionaries, and other Indians. The British inherited this role but played it very poorly. General Jeffrey Amherst, commander in chief of the British forces in North America, regarded the Indians as conquered peoples rather than allies and ordered that the flow of diplomatic presents to them be stopped. In May 1763 Anglo-Indian tensions created by Amherst's highhandedness erupted into a widespread and devastating frontier war known, after the American Ottawa chief, as Pontiac's War.
The violence and cost of this war spurred the British Board of Trade to expand the powers and responsibilities of the two superintendents for Indian affairs the crown had appointed during the French and Indian War. According to a plan formulated in 1764, the Indian superintendents—William Johnson in the northern colonies and John Stuart in the southern colonies—would oversee all Indian land purchases, regulate the fur trade, and negotiate a boundary line between Indian and colonial territory. The implementation of this new policy was stymied by the colonists' reluctance to follow the dictates of the crown's Indian superintendents. In 1768 the ministry restored management of the fur trade to the individual colonial governments, which lowered the crown's expenses but also increased the exploitation and abuses that fueled Indian discontent along the frontier in the years preceding the American Revolution.
The British ministry's efforts to fund the army and pacify Indians in North America were directly related to the third major focus of policymaking initiated by the French and Indian War. The territorial acquisitions of the war opened a vast new frontier to American land speculators and squatters anxious to exploit territory west of the Appalachian Mountains. Even before the ink was dry on the Peace of Paris, settlers were pushing into the Ohio Country, over the objections of Indians who claimed that region as their own. In the Proclamation of 1763, the British ministry tried to stem this tide by temporarily prohibiting settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains. Over time, this injunction became more permanent as the Indian superintendents negotiated treaties to create a fixed boundary line between colonial and Indian populations. Squatters ignored such restrictions, and well-connected land speculators lobbied the crown for land grants to establish new colonies in the continent's interior.
The British effort to impose control over its new western territories in North America came to a head in 1774 with Parliament's passage of the Quebec Act. While the chief purpose of this legislation was to establish a plan of civil government in Canada, it extended the authority of the new Quebec government over the western territories ceded by the French in 1763. Various provisions in the Quebec Act curtailed liberties Anglo-American colonists considered their birthright, including trial by jury and local government by elected assemblies. Anglo-Americans interpreted these measures as an effort to impose French-style despotism over any new colonies established west of the Appalachians.
Historians have long argued over the significance of these policies in the coming of the American Revolution. Some assert that the origins of the American Revolution lay in the western policy pursued by the British ministry after 1760, because this policy generated the need for the taxes that proved so obnoxious to the colonists. Others discount the impact of such measures as the Proclamation of 1763 and Quebec Act, especially when compared to the widespread protests ignited by the Stamp Act, Townshend Duties, and Tea Act. Regardless, the French and Indian War fundamentally changed Britain's approach to governing its North American colonies. The efforts to maintain a North American army, centralize Indian affairs, and manage a vast and unruly frontier no doubt contributed to the souring of Anglo-American relations after 1763 and helped define the issues upon which the empire split apart in 1776.
The Immediate Effects of the French and Indian War Assignment
sunday, October 06, 2013 THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR The French and Indian War began when Virginian Settlers went to claim land by the Ohio River that was given to them by the king in 1754. When they arrived, the French would not let them have the land, and kicked them out. A group of Virginians led by Major George Washington went to where the French had taken their claim. They were sent away civilly, but also strictly. Major Washington and the Virginian troops decided they would camp out while reinforcements arrived. Washington and his men ttacked the fort after they had armed both themselves and the reinforcements.
The first battle of the French-Indian War ended with a result of ten deaths, twenty one captures and one escape. War burst forth between Great Britain and France in both the new world and also in England. The war changed ownership of certain new world colonies, in order to pay off war debt, certain acts were put into effect, and famous people from the Revolutionary war got their governmental reputation from the French and Indian War. One important immediate effect of the French-Indian War as that some new world colonies changed in ownership.
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Some French colonies located in modern-day Canada were owned by Great Britain during the War. After the Spanish failed to ruin the English, Florida was signed away as well. The French were in control of Louisiana, Acadia and Northeastern Canada, home to many Indian tribes such as the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Catawba, Creek and Cherokee. The eastern seaboard in Georgia and the Carolinas was where the English chose to settle. The region between the English and French settlements tried to preserve their self- overnment through trading with both France and Great Britain.
The relationship among the colonies was also changed by the switch in ownership. Another major effect of the war was that certain acts were put into effect in order to pay off war debt. The Tea Act, The Sugar Act, The Townshend Act, The Quartering Act, and The Stamp Act were passed as a result of the French and Indian War. The Tea Act was established to remove tax dues on imported tea. The act enabled the East Indian Tea Company to recover from the losses it had experienced because of the colonies’ ailure to buy the tea.
There was also a component of trying to control smuggling because anti British protests were being funded using the money made from smuggled tea. The Sugar Act was put into effect in order to pay off the debt caused by the French and Indian War. The British placed taxes on sugar, coffee, wine and many other goods imported in large amounts from Britain, and many colonists boycotted the products despite the government’s attempt to pay off the countrys debt. Similar to the Sugar Act, The Townshend Act’s main purpose was to raise money to pay off the debt.
Taxes were placed on paint, paper, lead, glass and also tea. Colonists boycotted many of these items as well. The purpose of the Quartering Act made to house and quarter British soldiers in this act. The Stamp Act was created because Britain needed the colonists’ money so they could fght in their own war. Also, the act was made because the colonists needed to pay Britain back. The French and Indian War also gave famous people from the Revolutionary War a chance to get their governmental and military experience and reputation. One of those iconic people was George Washington, America’s first president.
AP United States History
The French and Indian war had negative effects on American-British relations. One reason for this was that the British made a law that no American military man could hold a rank higher than captain. During the war, American militia men often fought battles with British forces in addition to often being commanded by British higher ranking officials. When this happened there were numerous examples of British men who had no respect for the American militia considering them lesser soldiers. One example of this was when General Wolfe, a British General who led British and American troops in Canada called Americans “Scum” who had confessed failure by fleeing to the “outhouses of civilization”. Also key to the deterioration of British-American relations in the context of the French and Indian war was the aftermath of the war. One result of the war was that the French were driven off of North America. As a result, England received a large quantity of extra land on what was at the time considered the Western frontier. This excited colonials who wanted to settle this region. however, the British issued the proclamation of 1763. This law prohibited the settling of this region. The colonials were so outraged that they settled the area anyway. This was key to the eventual colonial dissension.
The French and Indian War (1754-1763): Its Consequences
The surrender of Montreal on September 8, 1760 signaled an end to all major military operations between Britain in France in North America during the French and Indian War. Although the guns had fallen silent in Canada and the British colonies, it was still yet to be determined just how or when the Seven Years’ War, still raging throughout the world, would end. What resulted from this global conflict and the French and Indian War shaped the future of North America.
By 1762, the Seven Years’ War, fought in Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines, had worn the opposing sides in the conflict down. The combatants (Britain, Prussia, and Hanover against France, Spain, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia) were ready for peace and a return to the status quo. Imperialist members of the British Parliament did not want to yield the territories gained during the war, but the other faction believed that it was necessary to return a number of France’s antebellum holdings in order to maintain a balance of power in Europe. This latter measure would not, however, include France’s North American territories and Spanish Florida.
On February 10, 1763, over two years after the fighting had ended in North America, hostilities officially ceased with the signing of the Treaty of Paris between Britain, France, and Spain. The fate of America’s future had been placed on a new trajectory, and as famously asserted by 19 th century historian, Francis Parkman, “half the continent had changed hands at the scratch of a pen.” France’s North American empire had vanished.
North America after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
The treaty granted Britain Canada and all of France’s claims east of the Mississippi River. This did not, however, include New Orleans, which France was allowed to retain. British subjects were guaranteed free rights of navigation on the Mississippi as well. In Nova Scotia, Fortress Louisbourg remained in Britain’s hands. A colonial provincial expeditionary force had captured the stronghold in 1745 during King George’s War, and much to their chagrin, it was returned to the French as a provision of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle (1748). That would not be the case this time around. In the Caribbean, the islands of Saint Vincent, Dominica, Tobago, Grenada, and the Grenadines would remain in British hands. Another bug acquisition for His Majesty’s North American empire came from Spain in the form of Florida. In return, Havana was given back to the Spanish. This gave Britain total control of the Atlantic Seaboard from Newfoundland all the way down to the Mississippi Delta.
The loss of Canada, economically, did not greatly harm France. It had proved to be a money hole that cost the country more to maintain than it actually returned in profit. The sugar islands in the West Indies were much more lucrative, and to France’s pleasure, Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe. Although His Most Christian Majesty’s influence in North America had receded, France did retain a tiny foothold in Newfoundland for fishing. Britain allowed the French to keep its rights to cod in the Grand Banks, as well as the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the southern coast.
The inhabitants of the British colonies in North America were jubilant upon hearing the results of the Treaty of Paris. For nearly a century they had lived in fear of the French colonists and their Native American allies to the north and west. Now France’s influence on the continent had been expelled and they could hope to live out their lives in peace and autonomously without relying on Britain’s protection.
The consequences of the French and Indian War would do more to drive a wedge in between Britain and her colonists more so than any other event up to that point in history. During the Seven Years’ War, Britain’s national debt nearly doubled, and the colonies would shoulder a good portion of the burden of paying it off. In the years that followed, taxes were imposed on necessities that the colonists considered part of everyday life—tea, molasses, paper products, etc. Though proud Englishmen, the colonists viewed themselves as partners in the British Empire, not subjects. King George III did not see it this way. These measures were met with various degrees of opposition and served as the kindling that would eventually contribute to igniting the fires of revolution.
That tinder that would eventually be lit the following decade also came in the form of the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, which had been heavily fought over during the war. As British traders moved westward over the mountains, disputes erupted between them and the Native Americans (previously allied with French) who inhabited the region. Overpriced goods did not appeal to the Native Americans, and almost immediately tensions arose. For many in the British military and the colonies, this land had been conquered and rested within His Majesty’s dominion. Therefore, the territory west of the Appalachians was not viewed as shared or Native land—it was rightfully open for British trade and settlement. The Native Americans did not respond accordingly.
19th-century painting of Pontiac by John Mix Stanley
What transpired next has gone down in history as Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1764) and involved members of the Seneca, Ottawa, Huron, Delaware, and Miami tribes. The various uprisings and uncoordinated attacks against British forts, outposts, and settlements in the Ohio River Valley and
along the Great Lakes that occurred, ravaged the frontier. Although a handful of forts fell, two key strongholds, Forts Detroit and Pitt, did not capitulate. In an attempt to quell the rebellion against British authority, the Proclamation of 1763 was issued. The French settlements north of New York and New England were consolidated into the colony of Quebec, and Florida was divided into two separate colonies. Any land that did not fall within the boundaries of these colonies, which would be governed by English Law, was granted to the Native Americans. Pontiac’s Rebellion eventually came to an end.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 further alienated the British colonists. Many sought to settle the west, and even Pennsylvania and Virginia had already claimed lands in the region. The proclamation prohibited the colonies from further issuing any grants. Only representatives of the Crown could negotiate land purchases with the Native Americans. Just as France had boxed the colonies into a stretch along the east coast, now George III was doing the same.
The French and Indian War had initially been a major success for the thirteen colonies, but its consequences soured the victory. Taxes imposed to pay for a massive national debt, a constant struggle with Native Americans over borders and territories, and the prohibition of expansion to the west fueled an ever-increasing “American” identity. As the years following the French and Indian War drug on, the colonists—already 3,000 miles away from Britain—grew further and further apart from the mother country.
What Was the Result of the French and Indian War?
As a result of the French and Indian War, Britain received Florida from Spain and Canada from France, while France maintained its West Indies colonies and Spain received Louisiana from France. However, the war also caused significant debts in France and Britain that eventually spurred revolutionary changes.
As a result of the new territory that Britain gained in North America, settlers from its 13 colonies began to move west, putting pressure on the Native American populations there. With France's departure from the Louisiana territories, the indigenous peoples had lost an important ally, which made them vulnerable to attacks and land confiscation from these settlers. When the British attempted to restrain the colonists, they responded with anger, creating tension that contributed to the American Revolution.
The debts that France and Britain incurred to win the war exacerbated instability both at home and in the colonies. To pay for the war, the British government began to increase taxes on the American colonies. These taxes caused anger and resentment among the colonists, who had gotten used to the previous British policy of "benign neglect." This anger also contributed to the American Revolution. In France, the debt weakened the financial position of the king's government, a weakness that ultimately forced him to accept the demands of the revolutionaries who rebelled against the monarchy in 1789.
In British America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had already been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, and it became known as the French and Indian War.  This continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict. It also led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies some historians make a connection between the French and Indian War and the Seven Years' War overseas, but most residents of the United States consider them as two separate conflicts—only one of which involved the American colonies,  and American historians generally use the traditional name. Less frequently used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. 
In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was largely concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. 
Canadians conflate both the European and American conflicts into the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans).  French Canadians also use the term "War of Conquest" (Guerre de la Conquête), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the British Empire. In Quebec, this term was promoted by popular historians Jacques Lacoursière and Denis Vaugeois, who borrowed from the ideas of Maurice Séguin in considering this war as a dramatic tipping point of French Canadian identity and nationhood. 
At this time, North America east of the Mississippi River was largely claimed by either Great Britain or France. Large areas had no colonial settlements. The French population numbered about 75,000 and was heavily concentrated along the St. Lawrence River valley, with some also in Acadia (present-day New Brunswick and parts of Nova Scotia), including Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). Fewer lived in New Orleans Biloxi, Mississippi Mobile, Alabama and small settlements in the Illinois Country, hugging the east side of the Mississippi River and its tributaries. French fur traders and trappers traveled throughout the St. Lawrence and Mississippi watersheds, did business with local Indian tribes, and often married Indian women.  Traders married daughters of chiefs, creating high-ranking unions.
British settlers outnumbered the French 20 to 1  with a population of about 1.5 million ranged along the Atlantic coast of the continent from Nova Scotia and the Colony of Newfoundland in the north to the Province of Georgia in the south.  Many of the older colonies' land claims extended arbitrarily far to the west, as the extent of the continent was unknown at the time when their provincial charters were granted. Their population centers were along the coast, but the settlements were growing into the interior. The British captured Nova Scotia from France in 1713, which still had a significant French-speaking population. Britain also claimed Rupert's Land where the Hudson's Bay Company traded for furs with local Indian tribes.
Between the French and British colonists, large areas were dominated by Indian tribes. To the north, the Mi'kmaq and the Abenakis were engaged in Father Le Loutre's War and still held sway in parts of Nova Scotia, Acadia, and the eastern portions of the province of Canada, as well as much of Maine.  The Iroquois Confederation dominated much of upstate New York and the Ohio Country, although Ohio also included Algonquian-speaking populations of Delaware and Shawnee, as well as Iroquoian-speaking Mingos. These tribes were formally under Iroquois rule and were limited by them in their authority to make agreements.  The Iroquois Confederation initially held a stance of neutrality to ensure continued trade with both French and British. Though maintaining this stance proved difficult as the Iroquois Confederation tribes sided and supported French or British causes depending on which side provided the most beneficial trade. 
The Southeast interior was dominated by Siouan-speaking Catawbas, Muskogee-speaking Creeks and Choctaw, and the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee tribes.  When war broke out, the French colonists used their trading connections to recruit fighters from tribes in western portions of the Great Lakes region, which was not directly subject to the conflict between the French and British these included the Hurons, Mississaugas, Ojibwas, Winnebagos, and Potawatomi.
The British colonists were supported in the war by the Iroquois Six Nations and also by the Cherokees, until differences sparked the Anglo-Cherokee War in 1758. In 1758, the Province of Pennsylvania successfully negotiated the Treaty of Easton in which a number of tribes in the Ohio Country promised neutrality in exchange for land concessions and other considerations. Most of the other northern tribes sided with the French, their primary trading partner and supplier of arms. The Creeks and Cherokees were subject to diplomatic efforts by both the French and British to gain either their support or neutrality in the conflict. [ citation needed ]
At this time, Spain claimed only the province of Florida in eastern America. It controlled Cuba and other territories in the West Indies that became military objectives in the Seven Years' War. Florida's European population was a few hundred, concentrated in St. Augustine. 
There were no French regular army troops stationed in America at the onset of war. New France was defended by about 3,000 troupes de la marine, companies of colonial regulars (some of whom had significant woodland combat experience). The colonial government recruited militia support when needed. The British had few troops. Most of the British colonies mustered local militia companies to deal with Indian threats, generally ill trained and available only for short periods, but they did not have any standing forces. Virginia, by contrast, had a large frontier with several companies of British regulars. [ citation needed ]
When hostilities began, the British colonial governments preferred operating independently of one another and of the government in London. This situation complicated negotiations with Indian tribes, whose territories often encompassed land claimed by multiple colonies. As the war progressed, the leaders of the British Army establishment tried to impose constraints and demands on the colonial administrations. [ citation needed ]
New France's Governor-General Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière was concerned about the incursion and expanding influence in the Ohio Country of British colonial traders such as George Croghan. In June 1747, he ordered Pierre-Joseph Céloron to lead a military expedition through the area. Its objectives were:
- to reaffirm to New France's Indian allies that their trading arrangements with colonists were exclusive to those authorized by New France
- to confirm Indian assistance in asserting and maintaining the French claim to the territories which French explorers had claimed
- to discourage any alliances between Britain and local Indian tribes
- to impress the Indians with a French show of force against British colonial settler incursion, unauthorized trading expeditions, and general trespass against French claims 
Céloron's expedition force consisted of about 200 Troupes de la marine and 30 Indians, and they covered about 3,000 miles (4,800 km) between June and November 1749. They went up the St. Lawrence, continued along the northern shore of Lake Ontario, crossed the portage at Niagara, and followed the southern shore of Lake Erie. At the Chautauqua Portage near Barcelona, New York, the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River, which it followed to the site of Pittsburgh. There Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country.  Whenever he encountered British colonial merchants or fur-traders, he informed them of the French claims on the territory and told them to leave. 
Céloron's expedition arrived at Logstown where the Indians in the area informed him that they owned the Ohio Country and that they would trade with the British colonists regardless of the French.  He continued south until his expedition reached the confluence of the Ohio and the Miami rivers, which lay just south of the village of Pickawillany, the home of the Miami chief known as "Old Briton". Céloron threatened Old Briton with severe consequences if he continued to trade with British colonists, but Old Briton ignored the warning. Céloron returned disappointedly to Montreal in November 1749. 
Céloron wrote an extensively detailed report. "All I can say is that the Natives of these localities are very badly disposed towards the French," he wrote, "and are entirely devoted to the English. I don't know in what way they could be brought back."  Even before his return to Montreal, reports on the situation in the Ohio Country were making their way to London and Paris, each side proposing that action be taken. Massachusetts governor William Shirley was particularly forceful, stating that British colonists would not be safe as long as the French were present. 
The War of the Austrian Succession ended in 1748 with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was primarily focused on resolving issues in Europe. The issues of conflicting territorial claims between British and French colonies were turned over to a commission, but it reached no decision. Frontier areas were claimed by both sides, from Nova Scotia and Acadia in the north to the Ohio Country in the south. The disputes also extended into the Atlantic Ocean, where both powers wanted access to the rich fisheries of the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. [ citation needed ]
In 1749, the British government gave land to the Ohio Company of Virginia for the purpose of developing trade and settlements in the Ohio Country.  The grant required that it settle 100 families in the territory and construct a fort for their protection. But the territory was also claimed by Pennsylvania, and both colonies began pushing for action to improve their respective claims.  In 1750, Christopher Gist explored the Ohio territory, acting on behalf of both Virginia and the company, and he opened negotiations with the Indian tribes at Logstown.  He completed the 1752 Treaty of Logstown in which the local Indians agreed to terms through their "Half-King" Tanacharison and an Iroquois representative. These terms included permission to build a strong house at the mouth of the Monongahela River on the modern site of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Escalation in Ohio Country
Governor-General of New France Marquis de la Jonquière died on March 17, 1752, and he was temporarily replaced by Charles le Moyne de Longueuil. His permanent replacement was to be the Marquis Duquesne, but he did not arrive in New France until 1752 to take over the post.  The continuing British activity in the Ohio territories prompted Longueuil to dispatch another expedition to the area under the command of Charles Michel de Langlade, an officer in the Troupes de la Marine. Langlade was given 300 men, including French-Canadians and warriors of the Ottawa tribe. His objective was to punish the Miami people of Pickawillany for not following Céloron's orders to cease trading with the British. On June 21, the French war party attacked the trading center at Pickawillany, capturing three traders  and killing 14 Miami Indians, including Old Briton. He was reportedly ritually cannibalized by some Indians in the expedition party.
Construction of French fortifications
In the spring of 1753, Paul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,000-man force of Troupes de la Marine and Indians. His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British. Marin followed the route that Céloron had mapped out four years earlier. Céloron, however, had limited the record of French claims to the burial of lead plates, whereas Marin constructed and garrisoned forts. He first constructed Fort Presque Isle on Lake Erie's south shore near Erie, Pennsylvania, and he had a road built to the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek. He then constructed a second fort at Fort Le Boeuf in Waterford, Pennsylvania, designed to guard the headwaters of LeBoeuf Creek. As he moved south, he drove off or captured British traders, alarming both the British and the Iroquois. Tanaghrisson was a chief of the Mingo Indians, who were remnants of Iroquois and other tribes who had been driven west by colonial expansion. He intensely disliked the French whom he accused of killing and eating his father. He traveled to Fort Le Boeuf and threatened the French with military action, which Marin contemptuously dismissed. 
The Iroquois sent runners to the manor of William Johnson in upstate New York, who was the British Superintendent for Indian Affairs in the New York region and beyond. Johnson was known to the Iroquois as Warraghiggey, meaning "he who does great things." He spoke their languages and had become a respected honorary member of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area, and he was made a colonel of the Iroquois in 1746 he was later commissioned as a colonel of the Western New York Militia.
The Indian representatives and Johnson met with Governor George Clinton and officials from some of the other American colonies at Albany, New York. Mohawk Chief Hendrick was the speaker of their tribal council, and he insisted that the British abide by their obligations [ which? ] and block French expansion. Clinton did not respond to his satisfaction, and Hendrick said that the "Covenant Chain" was broken, a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown.
Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia was an investor in the Ohio Company, which stood to lose money if the French held their claim.  He ordered 21-year-old Major George Washington (whose brother was another Ohio Company investor) of the Virginia Regiment to warn the French to leave Virginia territory in October 1753.  Washington left with a small party, picking up Jacob Van Braam as an interpreter, Christopher Gist (a company surveyor working in the area), and a few Mingos led by Tanaghrisson. On December 12, Washington and his men reached Fort Le Boeuf.  
Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre succeeded Marin as commander of the French forces after Marin died on October 29, and he invited Washington to dine with him. Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie demanding an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country. Saint-Pierre said, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it."  He told Washington that France's claim to the region was superior to that of the British, since René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle had explored the Ohio Country nearly a century earlier. 
Washington's party left Fort Le Boeuf early on December 16 and arrived in Williamsburg on January 16, 1754. He stated in his report, "The French had swept south",  detailing the steps which they had taken to fortify the area, and their intention to fortify the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. 
Even before Washington returned, Dinwiddie had sent a company of 40 men under William Trent to that point where they began construction of a small stockaded fort in the early months of 1754.  Governor Duquesne sent additional French forces under Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur to relieve Saint-Pierre during the same period, and Contrecœur led 500 men south from Fort Venango on April 5, 1754.  These forces arrived at the fort on April 16, but Contrecœur generously allowed Trent's small company to withdraw. He purchased their construction tools to continue building what became Fort Duquesne. 
Dinwiddie had ordered Washington to lead a larger force to assist Trent in his work, and Washington learned of Trent's retreat while he was en route.  Mingo sachem Tanaghrisson had promised support to the British, so Washington continued toward Fort Duquesne and met with him. He then learned of a French scouting party in the area from a warrior sent by Tanaghrisson, so he added Tanaghrisson's dozen Mingo warriors to his own party. Washington's combined force of 52 ambushed 40 Canadiens (French colonists of New France) on the morning of May 28 in what became known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen.  They killed many of the Canadians, including their commanding officer Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, whose head was reportedly split open by Tanaghrisson with a tomahawk. Historian Fred Anderson suggests that Tanaghrisson was acting to gain the support of the British and to regain authority over his own people. They had been inclined to support the French, with whom they had long trading relationships. One of Tanaghrisson's men told Contrecoeur that Jumonville had been killed by British musket fire.  Historians generally consider the Battle of Jumonville Glen as the opening battle of the French and Indian War in North America, and the start of hostilities in the Ohio valley.
Following the battle, Washington pulled back several miles and established Fort Necessity, which the Canadians attacked under the command of Jumonville's brother at the Battle of Fort Necessity on July 3. Washington surrendered and negotiated a withdrawal under arms. One of his men reported that the Canadian force was accompanied by Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo warriors—just those whom Tanaghrisson was seeking to influence. 
News of the two battles reached England in August. After several months of negotiations, the government of the Duke of Newcastle decided to send an army expedition the following year to dislodge the French.  They chose Major General Edward Braddock to lead the expedition.  Word of the British military plans leaked to France well before Braddock's departure for North America. In response, King Louis XV dispatched six regiments to New France under the command of Baron Dieskau in 1755.  The British sent out their fleet in February 1755, intending to blockade French ports, but the French fleet had already sailed. Admiral Edward Hawke detached a fast squadron to North America in an attempt to intercept them.
In a second British action, Admiral Edward Boscawen fired on the French ship Alcide on June 8, 1755, capturing her and two troop ships.  The British harassed French shipping throughout 1755, seizing ships and capturing seamen. These actions contributed to the eventual formal declarations of war in spring 1756. 
An early important political response to the opening of hostilities was the convening of the Albany Congress in June and July, 1754. The goal of the congress was to formalize a unified front in trade and negotiations with various Indians, since allegiance of the various tribes and nations was seen to be pivotal in the war that was unfolding. The plan that the delegates agreed to was neither ratified by the colonial legislatures nor approved of by the Crown. Nevertheless, the format of the congress and many specifics of the plan became the prototype for confederation during the War of Independence.
British campaigns, 1755
The British formed an aggressive plan of operations for 1755. General Braddock was to lead the expedition to Fort Duquesne,  while Massachusetts governor William Shirley was given the task of fortifying Fort Oswego and attacking Fort Niagara. Sir William Johnson was to capture Fort St. Frédéric at Crown Point, New York,  and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Monckton was to capture Fort Beauséjour to the east on the frontier between Nova Scotia and Acadia. 
Braddock led about 1,500 army troops and provincial militia on the Braddock expedition in June 1755 to take Fort Duquesne, with George Washington as one of his aides. The expedition was a disaster. It was attacked by French regulars, Canadian Militiamen, and Indian warriors ambushing them from hiding places up in trees and behind logs, and Braddock called for a retreat. He was killed and approximately 1,000 British soldiers were killed or injured.  The remaining 500 British troops retreated to Virginia, led by Washington. Washington and Thomas Gage played key roles in organizing the retreat—two future opponents in the American Revolutionary War.
The British government initiated a plan to increase their military capability in preparation for war following news of Braddock's defeat and the start of parliament's session in November 1755. Among the early legislative measures were the Recruiting Act 1756,  the Commissions to Foreign Protestants Act 1756  for the Royal American Regiment, the Navigation Act 1756,  and the Continuance of Acts 1756.  England passed the Naval Prize Act 1756 following the proclamation of war on May 17 to allow the capture of ships and establish privateering. 
The French acquired a copy of the British war plans, including the activities of Shirley and Johnson. Shirley's efforts to fortify Oswego were bogged down in logistical difficulties, exacerbated by his inexperience in managing large expeditions. In conjunction, he was made aware that the French were massing for an attack on Fort Oswego in his absence when he planned to attack Fort Niagara. As a response, he left garrisons at Oswego, Fort Bull, and Fort Williams, the last two located on the Oneida Carry between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek at Rome, New York. Supplies were cached at Fort Bull for use in the projected attack on Niagara.
Johnson's expedition was better organized than Shirley's, which was noticed by New France's governor the Marquis de Vaudreuil. Vaudreuil had been concerned about the extended supply line to the forts on the Ohio, and he had sent Baron Dieskau to lead the defenses at Frontenac against Shirley's expected attack. Vaudreuil saw Johnson as the larger threat and sent Dieskau to Fort St. Frédéric to meet that threat. Dieskau planned to attack the British encampment at Fort Edward at the upper end of navigation on the Hudson River, but Johnson had strongly fortified it, and Dieskau's Indian support was reluctant to attack. The two forces finally met in the bloody Battle of Lake George between Fort Edward and Fort William Henry. The battle ended inconclusively, with both sides withdrawing from the field. Johnson's advance stopped at Fort William Henry, and the French withdrew to Ticonderoga Point, where they began the construction of Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga after the British captured it in 1759).
Colonel Monckton captured Fort Beauséjour in June 1755 in the sole British success that year, cutting off the French Fortress Louisbourg from land-based reinforcements. To cut vital supplies to Louisbourg, Nova Scotia's Governor Charles Lawrence ordered the deportation of the French-speaking Acadian population from the area. Monckton's forces, including companies of Rogers' Rangers, forcibly removed thousands of Acadians, chasing down many who resisted and sometimes committing atrocities. Cutting off supplies to Louisbourg led to its demise.  The Acadian resistance was sometimes quite stiff, in concert with Indian allies including the Mi'kmaq, with ongoing frontier raids against Dartmouth and Lunenburg, among others. The only clashes of any size were at Petitcodiac in 1755 and at Bloody Creek near Annapolis Royal in 1757, other than the campaigns to expel the Acadians ranging around the Bay of Fundy, on the Petitcodiac and St. John rivers, and Île Saint-Jean.
French victories, 1756–1757
Following the death of Braddock, William Shirley assumed command of British forces in North America, and he laid out his plans for 1756 at a meeting in Albany in December 1755. He proposed renewing the efforts to capture Niagara, Crown Point, and Duquesne, with attacks on Fort Frontenac on the north shore of Lake Ontario and an expedition through the wilderness of the Maine district and down the Chaudière River to attack the city of Quebec. His plan, however, got bogged down by disagreements and disputes with others, including William Johnson and New York's Governor Sir Charles Hardy, and consequently gained little support.
Newcastle replaced him in January 1756 with Lord Loudoun, with Major General James Abercrombie as his second in command. Neither of these men had as much campaign experience as the trio of officers whom France sent to North America.  French regular army reinforcements arrived in New France in May 1756, led by Major General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and seconded by the Chevalier de Lévis and Colonel François-Charles de Bourlamaque, all experienced veterans from the War of the Austrian Succession. On May 18, 1756, Britain formally declared war on France, which expanded the war into Europe and came to be known as the Seven Years' War.
Governor Vaudreuil had ambitions to become the French commander in chief, in addition to his role as governor, and he acted during the winter of 1756 before those reinforcements arrived. Scouts had reported the weakness of the British supply chain, so he ordered an attack against the forts which Shirley had erected at the Oneida Carry. In the Battle of Fort Bull, French forces destroyed the fort and large quantities of supplies, including 45,000 pounds of gunpowder. They set back any British hopes for campaigns on Lake Ontario and endangered the Oswego garrison, already short on supplies. French forces in the Ohio valley also continued to intrigue with Indians throughout the area, encouraging them to raid frontier settlements. This led to ongoing alarms along the western frontiers, with streams of refugees returning east to get away from the action.
The new British command was not in place until July. Abercrombie arrived in Albany but refused to take any significant actions until Loudoun approved them, and Montcalm took bold action against his inertia. He built on Vaudreuil's work harassing the Oswego garrison and executed a strategic feint by moving his headquarters to Ticonderoga, as if to presage another attack along Lake George. With Abercrombie pinned down at Albany, Montcalm slipped away and led the successful attack on Oswego in August. In the aftermath, Montcalm and the Indians under his command disagreed about the disposition of prisoners' personal effects. The Europeans did not consider them prizes and prevented the Indians from stripping the prisoners of their valuables, which angered the Indians.
Loudoun was a capable administrator but a cautious field commander, and he planned one major operation for 1757: an attack on New France's capital of Quebec. He left a sizable force at Fort William Henry to distract Montcalm and began organizing for the expedition to Quebec. He was then ordered to attack Louisbourg first by William Pitt, the Secretary of State responsible for the colonies. The expedition was beset by delays of all kinds but was finally ready to sail from Halifax, Nova Scotia, in early August. In the meantime, French ships had escaped the British blockade of the French coast, and a fleet awaited Loudoun at Louisbourg which outnumbered the British fleet. Faced with this strength, Loudoun returned to New York amid news that a massacre had occurred at Fort William Henry.
French irregular forces (Canadian scouts and Indians) harassed Fort William Henry throughout the first half of 1757. In January, they ambushed British rangers near Ticonderoga. In February, they launched a raid against the position across the frozen Lake George, destroying storehouses and buildings outside the main fortification. In early August, Montcalm and 7,000 troops besieged the fort, which capitulated with an agreement to withdraw under parole. When the withdrawal began, some of Montcalm's Indian allies attacked the British column because they were angry about the lost opportunity for loot, killing and capturing several hundred men, women, children, and slaves. The aftermath of the siege may have contributed to the transmission of smallpox into remote Indian populations, as some Indians were reported to have traveled from beyond the Mississippi to participate in the campaign and returned afterward. Modern writer William Nester believes that the Indians might have been exposed to European carriers, although no proof exists. 
British conquest, 1758–1760
Vaudreuil and Montcalm were minimally resupplied in 1758, as the British blockade of the French coastline limited French shipping. The situation in New France was further exacerbated by a poor harvest in 1757, a difficult winter, and the allegedly corrupt machinations of François Bigot, the intendant of the territory. His schemes to supply the colony inflated prices and were believed by Montcalm to line his pockets and those of his associates. A massive outbreak of smallpox among western Indian tribes led many of them to stay away from trading in 1758. The disease probably spread through the crowded conditions at William Henry after the battle  yet the Indians blamed the French for bringing "bad medicine" as well as denying them prizes at Fort William Henry.
Montcalm focused his meager resources on the defense of the St. Lawrence, with primary defenses at Carillon, Quebec, and Louisbourg, while Vaudreuil argued unsuccessfully for a continuation of the raiding tactics that had worked quite effectively in previous years.  The British failures in North America combined with other failures in the European theater and led to Newcastle's fall from power along with the Duke of Cumberland, his principal military advisor.
Newcastle and Pitt joined in an uneasy coalition in which Pitt dominated the military planning. He embarked on a plan for the 1758 campaign that was largely developed by Loudoun. He had been replaced by Abercrombie as commander in chief after the failures of 1757. Pitt's plan called for three major offensive actions involving large numbers of regular troops supported by the provincial militias, aimed at capturing the heartlands of New France. Two of the expeditions were successful, with Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg falling to sizable British forces.
The Forbes Expedition was a British campaign in September–October 1758, with 6,000 troops led by General John Forbes sent to drive out the French from the contested Ohio Country. The French withdrew from Fort Duquesne and left the British in control of the Ohio River Valley.  The great French fortress at Louisbourg in Nova Scotia was captured after a siege. 
The third invasion was stopped with the improbable French victory in the Battle of Carillon, in which 3,600 Frenchmen defeated Abercrombie's force of 18,000 regulars, militia, and Indian allies outside the fort which the French called Carillon and the British called Ticonderoga. Abercrombie saved something from the disaster when he sent John Bradstreet on an expedition that successfully destroyed Fort Frontenac, including caches of supplies destined for New France's western forts and furs destined for Europe. Abercrombie was recalled and replaced by Jeffery Amherst, victor at Louisbourg.
The French had generally poor results in 1758 in most theaters of the war. The new foreign minister was the duc de Choiseul, and he decided to focus on an invasion of Britain to draw British resources away from North America and the European mainland. The invasion failed both militarily and politically, as Pitt again planned significant campaigns against New France and sent funds to Britain's mainland ally of Prussia, while the French Navy failed in the 1759 naval battles at Lagos and Quiberon Bay. In one piece of good fortune, some French supply ships did manage to depart France and elude the British blockade of the French coast.
The British proceeded to wage a campaign in the northwest frontier of Canada in an effort to cut off the French frontier forts to the west and south. They captured Ticonderoga and Fort Niagara, and they defeated the French at the Thousand Islands in the summer of 1759. In September 1759, James Wolfe defeated Montcalm in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham which claimed the lives of both commanders. After the battle, the French capitulated the city to the British.
In April 1760, François Gaston de Lévis led French forces to launch an attack to retake Quebec. Although he won the Battle of Sainte-Foy, Lévis' subsequent siege of Quebec ended in defeat when British ships arrived to relieve the garrison. After Lévis had retreated he was given another blow when a British naval victory at Restigouche brought the loss of French ships meant to resupply his army. In July Jeffrey Amherst then led British forces numbering around 18,000 men in a three pronged attack on Montreal. After eliminating French positions along the way all three forces met up and surrounded Montreal in September. Many Canadians deserted or surrendered their arms to British forces while the Native allies of the French sought peace and neutrality. De Lévis and the Marquis de Vaudreuil reluctantly signed the Articles of Capitulation of Montreal on September 8 which effectively completed the British conquest of New France.
Sporadic engagements, 1760–1763
Most of the fighting ended in America in 1760, although it continued in Europe between France and Britain. The notable exception was the French seizure of St. John's, Newfoundland. General Amherst heard of this surprise action and immediately dispatched troops under his nephew William Amherst, who regained control of Newfoundland after the Battle of Signal Hill in September 1762.  Many of the British troops who were stationed in America were reassigned to participate in further British actions in the West Indies, including the capture of Spanish Havana when Spain belatedly entered the conflict on the side of France, and a British expedition against French Martinique in 1762 led by Major General Robert Monckton. 
Governor Vaudreuil in Montreal negotiated a capitulation with General Amherst in September 1760. Amherst granted his requests that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, to own property, and to remain undisturbed in their homes. The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers, and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war. 
General Amherst also oversaw the transition of French forts to British control in the western lands. The policies which he introduced in those lands disturbed large numbers of Indians and contributed to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763.  This series of attacks on frontier forts and settlements required the continued deployment of British troops, and it was not resolved until 1766. 
The war in North America officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 10 February 1763, and war in the European theater was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on 15 February 1763. The British offered France the choice of surrendering either its continental North American possessions east of the Mississippi or the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British. France chose to cede the former but was able to negotiate the retention of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, along with fishing rights in the area. They viewed the economic value of the Caribbean islands' sugar cane to be greater and easier to defend than the furs from the continent. French philosopher Voltaire referred to Canada disparagingly as nothing more than a few acres of snow. The British, however, were happy to take New France, as defence of their North American colonies would no longer be an issue they also had ample places from which to obtain sugar. Spain traded Florida to Britain in order to regain Cuba, but they also gained Louisiana from France, including New Orleans, in compensation for their losses. Great Britain and Spain also agreed that navigation on the Mississippi River was to be open to vessels of all nations. 
The war changed economic, political, governmental, and social relations among the three European powers, their colonies, and the people who inhabited those territories. France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences.
Britain gained control of French Canada and Acadia, colonies containing approximately 80,000 primarily French-speaking Roman Catholic residents. The deportation of Acadians beginning in 1755 made land available to immigrants from Europe and migrants from the colonies to the south. The British resettled many Acadians throughout its American provinces, but many went to France and some went to New Orleans, which they expected to remain French. Some were sent to colonize places as diverse as French Guiana and the Falkland Islands, but these efforts were unsuccessful. The Louisiana population contributed to founding the Cajun population. (The French word "Acadien" changed to "Cadien" then to "Cajun".) 
King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 on October 7, 1763, which outlined the division and administration of the newly conquered territory, and it continues to govern relations to some extent between the government of Canada and the First Nations. Included in its provisions was the reservation of lands west of the Appalachian Mountains to its Indian population,  a demarcation that was only a temporary impediment to a rising tide of westward-bound settlers.  The proclamation also contained provisions that prevented civic participation by the Roman Catholic Canadians. 
The Quebec Act of 1774 addressed issues brought forth by Roman Catholic French Canadians from the 1763 proclamation, and it transferred the Indian Reserve into the Province of Quebec. The Act maintained French Civil law, including the seigneurial system, a medieval code removed from France within a generation by the French Revolution. The Quebec Act was a major concern for the largely Protestant Thirteen Colonies over the advance of "popery". It is typically associated with other Intolerable Acts, legislation that eventually led to the American Revolutionary War. The Quebec Act served as the constitutional document for the Province of Quebec until it was superseded by the Constitutional Act 1791.
The Seven Years' War nearly doubled Great Britain's national debt. The Crown sought sources of revenue to pay it off and attempted to impose new taxes on its colonies. These attempts were met with increasingly stiff resistance, until troops were called in to enforce the Crown's authority, and they ultimately led to the start of the American Revolutionary War.  France attached comparatively little value to its American possessions, apart from the highly profitable sugar-producing Antilles islands which it retained. Minister Choiseul considered that he had made a good deal at the Treaty of Paris, and Voltaire wrote that Louis XV had lost "a few acres of snow".  However, the military defeat and the financial burden of the war weakened the French monarchy and contributed to the advent of the French Revolution in 1789. 
The elimination of French power in America meant the disappearance of a strong ally for some Indian tribes.  The Ohio Country was now more available to colonial settlement due to the construction of military roads by Braddock and Forbes.  The Spanish takeover of the Louisiana territory was not completed until 1769, and it had modest repercussions. The British takeover of Spanish Florida resulted in the westward migration of Indian tribes who did not want to do business with them. This migration also caused a rise in tensions between the Choctaw and the Creek, historic enemies who were competing for land.  The change of control in Florida also prompted most of its Spanish Catholic population to leave. Most went to Cuba, although some Christianized Yamasee were resettled to the coast of Mexico. 
France returned to America in 1778 with the establishment of a Franco-American alliance against Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, in what historian Alfred A. Cave describes as French "revenge for Montcalm's death". 
Respond to this Question
How did the French and Indian War contribute to new taxation policies in the American colonies? A. The French government imposed higher taxes on the American colonists in order to stockpile an artillery and defeat the British
Social studies HELP PLSS
1. Which of the following was the provision in the treaty of paris 1763? A.All french land in north america was being given to england B.All french land in north america was being given to spain C.All french land west of
How did the end of the French and Indian War lead to discontent among Britain’s 13 colonies? Britain forced colonists to settle the Northwest Territory to protect against American Indian attacks. The destructiveness of the war
How did the French and Indian War contribute to new taxation policies in the American colonies? The American colonists sided with the British and agreed to pay higher taxes in order to help defeat the French army. The French
Compare the results of the French and Indian War among the groups involved. Which groups suffered similar consequences? American colonists and the Iroquois bore the effects of a massive war debt. The Spanish and Native American
1. Place the following events in order.
The Declaration of Independence is signed.
The Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia.
The French and Indian War ends.
The Battle of Yorktown begins.
The continental congress meets
Social studies help assap
which of the following effects of the french and indian war most contributed to smuggling in the colonies? increased taxes from the crown enforcement of the navigation acts presence of british soldiers in the colonies removal of
What were some resons for the French and Indian war? Select all that apply French and British both wanted control of the Ohio river Valley •• French and British fought over control of Indian fur trade•• The French wanted
How is the Seven Years War related to the French and Indian War? The French and Indian War directly caused the Seven Years' War. The French and Indian War was part of the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years' War was more of a land
Social Studies HELP.
After World War II, the United States fought in which of these wars in order to keep more countries in Asia from becoming communist? * 1 point A. the First Iraq War B. the French and Indian War C. the War in Afghanistan & the Gulf
Social Studies Help ASAP
Why did the British want to expand control into the Ohio Valley in the mid-1700s? a. to force the French out of North America b. to put French settlers there under English rule c. to demonstrate Britain’s strength to France and
I am doing a research paper on the French and Indian war, and I can't find the environment that the French were in compared to the British.
Key Facts & Information
- The French and Indian War happened between 1754 and 1763 in North America.
- France and Britain were already fighting in Europe in the early 1750s, but now the battle had spread to North America where the British and French colonies were living.
- The war was between the British and French colonies living in America, but because there were so many more British Americans, the French people relied on the local Native American Indian people to help them as allies.
- This is why it’s called the French and Indian War.
- The area where the French colonies lived is now Canada but was known as New France in the 18th century.
- The French and Indian War started because France wanted control over the Ohio River area, but Britain wouldn’t let them have it. This dispute soon turned into a battle and the British declared war against France.
- The land surrounding the Ohio River was very valuable in terms of resources and the route of fur-trading with the Native Americans.
- “Both Great Britain and France coveted the region for different reasons. The French recognized the strategic importance of the valley as a link in their far-flung empire, which stretched from New France, in Canada, to Louisiana, along the Mississippi River. On the other hand, English colonists from Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania hoped to settle the Ohio Valley area.”
– According to the book Bushy Run Battlefield: Pennsylvania Trail of History Guide
THE WAR BEGAN
- Most of the fighting happened in the area that is now Upstate New York.
- In Britain and Europe, the war was called the Seven Years’ War, but in America, it was called the French and Indian War.
- In 1757, the new British leader, William Pitt, saw the war as a great way to build a bigger empire and he put a lot of money into ensuring Britain succeeded.
- By 1758, Britain had made peace with many of the Native American Indian people. The Indian people then started to abandon their French allies, causing France’s war effort to become weaker and weaker.
- Spain joined the war in place of the Native American Indians and helped France to fight against Britain, but it was too late and, in 1759, France lost control of Quebec.
- By 1760, Britain had also gained control over Montreal and had forced France out of Canada completely. Pitt saw this as a great success and began attacking other French and Spanish colonies in other parts of the world.
- The war was a massive conflict between Austria, England, France, Britain, Prussia, and Sweden. In Europe, King Frederick the Great of Prussia was battling Sweden, Austria, and France, while in North America, England and France were going head-to-head for colonial domination.
- More people died in the French and Indian War than died in the entire American Revolution.
THE END OF WAR
- The war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty meant that France had to give all of its American and Canadian territories back to Britain and Spain, and Spain also had to give up Florida.
- The result of the French and Indian war was that Britain now owned much more land than it had before and the French influence over North America was totally removed. However, the relationship between Britain and the Native American Indians was badly damaged and it was this that eventually led America towards its Revolutionary War.
- As a result, the war triggered hostilities between Britain and the American colonists. The British Parliament began to pass acts which levied taxes on different goods both imported and locally made in the colony.
- Among the major events during the French and Indian War were as follows:
- The Battle at Fort Duquesne (1755) where 1500 men under the command of British General Braddock were ambushed by the French and the Indians.
- In the Battle of Fort Oswego (1756), the French took 1700 prisoners.
- In 1757, the French captured Fort William Henry and killed 150 British soldiers despite their surrender.
- British captured Quebec City from the French in 1759.
- In 1760, the city of Montreal fell to the British.
French and Indian War Worksheets
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the French and Indian War across 19 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use French and Indian War worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years’ War, which was a significant precursor to the American Revolutionary War. It resulted in France losing almost all of its American and Canadian territories to the British Empire.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- French and Indian War Facts
- Primary Source
- French and Indian Allies
- The Last of the Mohicans
- Foundation of a Revolution
- War in Boxes
- Powder Horns
- George Washington Profile
- War Timeline
- French and Indian War Mapping
- War Arguments
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The French and Indian War (or Seven Years War)
The French and Indian War was a conflict between the American colonists and the French over control of the Ohio Valley and the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers—modern day Pittsburgh. It received its title because the war was Britain and its American colonies fighting against the French and their Indian allies.
It was known as the Seven Years War in Europe, where additional battles were fought between the English and French.
Many Indian tribes became involved. The main tribes at this time were the Shawnee, Sandusky Seneca, Wea, and Kickapoo on the French side. The Cherokee, Seneca, Mohawk, Montauk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, Creek, Chickasaw, and Tuscarora were fighting with the American-British forces.
Indian from Death of General Wolfe painting by Benjamin West in 1770 | Public domain image
The reason the Indians were involved in the French and Indian War was because the British were taking control over their land. They were upset that the Americans were listening to British orders and giving them less and less land to live on. French major Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal realized the potential of having Indian allies. He strengthened ties with Indian forces by dressing himself as one of them and learning their language.
The Indians were very enthusiastic to be on the French side, since Vaudreul-Cavagnal gave them free reign to attack the British settlements and obtain free weapons.
This led to disagreements, however, when Indians wanted the personal possessions of British and American prisoners, which the French would not allow them to take. After a capture at Fort William Henry, they killed hundreds of surrendered British soldiers and civilians in a rage, because they were forbidden to loot them.
When other French officers realized how much of a problem this was becoming, they complained. Nonetheless, the Indian rioting was only settled when the treaty of Paris was signed in 1763.
After constant fighting over who had control over the Ohio Valley and much more, the Virginia government saw that something must be done to take down French forces hiding out in the woods.
They decided to send Major George Washington, later president of the United States, to do the job.
General Edward Braddock falls at the Battle of Monongahela
He arrived with a party of six to inform the French general to get off British land. He was told, however, that the French were not only determined to take the rest of the land which they felt was theirs, but that they are going to occupy the entire Ohio Valley.
Washington returned to Virginia in winter weather, disappointed, but he had noted that the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers (modern day Pittsburg) would be an excellent place to build a fort.
In April of 1754, George Washington returned to build the fort. But this, too, was unsuccessful. The French found out, seized the place, and named it Fort Duquesne.
Washington, greatly annoyed, planned a surprise attack on a French camp nearby. He and his forces killed ten men. It is said to have been the first blood spilled during the whole French and Indian War.
Later, though, he was forced to surrender when he encountered their main force. The French, in return for letting Washington’s army leave, made him promise that Virginia would not build any forts in Ohio for one year.
In February of 1755, Britain sent General Edward Braddock and an army of 14,000 men to accompany George Washington in taking Fort Duquesne back.
They were defeated yet again by a French and Indian ambush in July, and Braddock was killed.
Washington returned to Virginia having been ineffective once again. Nonetheless, his courage on the battle field was noticed, and he was promoted to the rank of Colonel and made Commander-in-Chief of Virginian troops.
Britain Declares War
Amazingly, despite these battles, war was not officially declared until 1756, which is how the 9-year French and Indian War could also be known as the 7 Years War.
Things did not go well. With Indian support, they captured several forts along the Pennsylvania and New York frontier.
In 1758, Brigadier General John Forbes led a large British force in a multi-pronged attack on the Atlantic coast, in New York, and on the Canadian border.
Death of General James Wolfe by stray cannon shot at Battle of Quebec in 1759 painted by Benjamin West in 1770
Forbes’ attack was a brilliant success for one reason. He called a council of Indian tribes at Ft. Bedford and got the tribes to agree to support the British.
The French, realizing their strongest allies were gone, abandoned Ft. Duquesne and pulled back to Canada. Without Indian support, they could not hold even Canada, and it took only two years for the British to completely drive them from North America.
In 1763, the French and Indian War finally ended when three representatives from Spain, Great Britain, and France gathered to sign the Treaty of Paris.
The French and Indian War Leads to the Revolutionary War
The French and India War helped lead to the Revolutionary War in two ways.
First, funding this war led to an immense national debt for Great Britain, which they felt the Americans should help pay.
Parliament decided to service the debt by passing the Stamp Act, a terrible failure which angered citizens on both sides of the Atlantic and began the rift between Britain and its colonists.
Second, the French, driven from North America during the French and Indian War, supported the effort for American independence with money and supplies, then gladly joined the fray after the Battle of Saratoga gave them hope that the Americans might actually win.
Watch the video: The French and Indian War Explained. History