Archaeologists Find Hieroglyphics That Shed New Light on the Golden Age of the Meroitic Civilization

Archaeologists Find Hieroglyphics That Shed New Light on the Golden Age of the Meroitic Civilization

A team of Italian and Russian archeologists says that they have made one of the most important discoveries connected with the history of Nubia. According to the Sudan Antiquities Service, the hieroglyphic inscription uncovered at Abu Erteila, may be the most important discovery in the last decade.

AGI reports that the excavations conducted from November to December 2015 by the international team were led by Eugenio Fantusati from Sapienza University of Rome, his deputy Marco Baldi, and by Eleonora Kormysheva, the Director of the Golenishev center for Egyptology, Russian State University for the Humanities, and a Principal Researcher in the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Excavating the site of Abu Erteila, Sudan in 2015. ( CEEMO)

Around 200 km (124.3 miles) north of Khartoum they discovered the most impressive artifacts, which include a basalt ritual altar, a hieroglyphic inscription, and a sacred boat. This discovery, which is a fruit of eight rounds of excavations, is shedding new light on the Nubian civilization that existed between the 1st century BC and 1st century AC. The temple where the findings were made, was thought to have been most likely destroyed by a fire. The ruins are currently being carbon-dated to ascertain the exact date of the event.

“We're still studying the text of the hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egyptian, but we've already identified the cartouches with the names of the royal couple they mention. They are King Natakamani and Queen Amanitore, who ruled during the Golden Age of the Meroitic civilization that developed in the Nile. It played an important role on the international stage: consider the fact that it had commercial and diplomatic ties with the Roman Empire, up to its decline owed to the rise of the Ethiopian Kingdom of Axum.” Professor Fantusati told AGI.

King Natakamani and Queen Amanitore honoring the god Apedemak. ( Saint Louis University )

According to the researchers, the base for a sacred boat was located in the "naos" or central hall of the building. It harbored a Nubian deity periodically placed on a boat for a ritualistic procession. Regarding to the words by professor Fantusati, the artifact is extremely important for a better understanding of the relations between the Meroitic world with the nearby Egyptian civilization. "It lends further prestige to the Abu Erteila site, whose official vestiges now certainly rank among the most interesting findings in contemporary Nubian archeology." - he said.

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient African kingdom which existed from 1070 BC to 350 AD. Established after the collapse of the Bronze Age and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, it was centered at Napata. The Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs in Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period, especially during the reign of the Twenty-fifth dynasty. However, they were expelled from Egypt by the Assyrians under the rule of Esarhaddon. The kingdom survived until the Roman Empire expanded onto their territory. The fade of Kush started by the 1st or 2nd century AD when it was sapped by the war with the Roman province of Egypt. Later, Christianity began to gain hold over the old religion.

  • 16 Ancient Pyramids, Burial Sites for a Vanished Kingdom, Found in Sudan
  • Nubia and the Powerful Kingdom of Kush
  • Pyramids of Meroë stand as Last Remnants of a Powerful Civilization
  • The rich history of the ancient Nubian Kingdom of Dongola

The environment of the temple also allowed the team to form a clearer image of the building and integrate the new information with what they have found in previous digs . The mission's first campaign was launched in 2008 with the support of Sudanese authorities. The archeological mission in 2015 was funded by the International Association of Mediterranean and Oriental Studies and the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The mission was also officially recognized by the Italian foreign ministry.

Two of artifacts recently uncovered at Abu Erteila: a crown amulet and a lion statuette. ( Fantusati/Lebedev)

The King and Queen of the Golden Age and Their Palace

Natakamani ruled the kingdom of Kush (Nubia, nowadays Sudan) from around 1 BC to 20 AD. He was one of the most important rulers of the Meroitic period. He was preceded by his mother, queen Amanishakheto. His wife, queen Amanitore, was also a co-regent and probably a successor. Nubian pharaoh Natakamani and Queen Amanitore were the last great builders in Kush. They are known for restoring the temples and building a pyramid in Meroe. Their buildings were raised in Keraba, an area between the Nile and the Atbara Rivers. Nearby they built the city Naqua where the Temple of Apedemak is located. This temple is one of the best known monuments and still is in a good state of preservation.

The royal palace of Natakamani and Queen Amanitore was in Gebel (Jebel) Barkal . It became one of the greatest discoveries connected with the king and queen. Excavated for many years, it still brings much new information about this period. In order to fill the gap in the knowledge about the royal couple, in 2001 an excavation was undertaken by the Archeological Mission of the Sapienza University of Rome. During the work, archeologists discovered the rooms which belonged to the royal family, the storage which was full of precious artifacts, and many other structures.

Photo and plan of Building B3200 in Gebel Barkal. (Sapienza University )

There are a few monuments which have been found where Natakamani and Amanitore appear together, proving the strong relationship between them. Several temple sculptures depict that they had almost equal rights and standing. Unfortunately, many of the buildings built by the couple were destroyed by the Romans. The remains of the ancient kingdom of Kush is like a puzzle, and when more pieces are added it is hoped that there will be a better understanding of the history of Natakamani and his times.

Featured Image: Two examples of Meroitic Hieroglyphs (not found at Abu Erteila) - Votive Plaque of King Tanyidamani ( Public Domain ) and a Meroitic stela. ( British Museum )

By: Natalia Klimczak


3.2: Chapter 2: Early Middle Eastern and Northeast African Civilizations

The term civilization often elicits mostly idealized images of ancient empires, monumental architecture, and the luxurious lives of ruling classes. Civilization, however, is a tricky term. In the United States, students of history studied Western Civilization, almost exclusively, through the 1950s. In their studies, civilizations were advanced societies with urban centers, rooted in European or Middle Eastern culture. America&rsquos origins in these western civilizations was used to explain our own high level of development. However, more recent scholars have definitely broadened the geographical focus by recognizing that worldwide from 3500 to 1000 BCE at least seven independent civilizations emerged in different regions. These recent scholars also continue to debate the definition of civilization, and the current compromise amongst World Historians is to recognize characteristics that civilizations tended to share. Common characteristics of civilizations included food surpluses, higher population densities, social stratification, systems of taxation, labor specialization, regular trade, and accumulated learning (or knowledge passed down from generation to generation). The list here is not all-inclusive by any means, but it indicates the complexity of the societies that scholars have labeled civilizations.

In addition to heated debates about its exact definition, civilization is a loaded term, meaning that it can contain a value judgment. If we use the term carelessly, it seems to indicate that some societies are deemed civilized and worthy of inclusion, while others are uncivilized and thus not worth our study. In part, our sensitivity to this issue is a response to the tendency of past historians, including many of those working in Europe in the 1800s, to assume that there was a natural progression from an uncivilized state to civilization. These historians viewed people who had values, ways of living, and religious beliefs different than theirs as uncivilized. They further believed that these allegedly uncivilized peoples were behind or needed to catch up with those who were civilized. Today, World Historians try to appreciate the great diversity of human experiences and consciously remove these sorts of value judgments. World Historians avoid assumptions that some societies in the past were better or further along than others. Therefore, many World Historians remain wary of the uncritical use of the term civilization.

For our purposes, let us leave aside any value judgments. Societies labeled as civilizations were not inherently better than any others. In fact, as we will see, civilizations demonstrated various vulnerabilities. Considering things like war, slavery, and the spread of diseases, there were sometimes advantages to living outside the nexus of civilizations. For example, in comparing societies, scholars have found that in many instances people residing in decentralized states were healthier and lived longer than did their counterparts in early civilizations. However, people living in societies with social stratification, labor specialization, and trade usually left more written records and archeological evidence, which historians can analyze to narrate our past. The available resources mean that civilizations tend to be better represented in the written historical records. As you read about past civilizations, keep in mind that historians are currently enhancing our understanding of societies that perhaps remained mobile, rejected hierarchies, or preserved their histories orally. These societies were also part of our shared past, even if they are harder to study or have received less scholarly attention.

This chapter focuses on early civilizations in the Fertile Crescent and Northeast Africa. The civilizations in these regions left written records. They also all initially had economies based on farming and developed alongside rivers. Their locations alongside rivers allowed populations in the Fertile Crescent and Northeast Africa to grow the surplus food that they used to support urbanization, social stratification, labor specialization, and trade.


Maya Civilization Was Ultraviolent, Even Before Its Collapse

A hieroglyphic inscription found in an ancient Maya city now reveals kingdoms making up this civilization waged extraordinarily destructive warfare much earlier than previously thought, a new study finds.

These findings may shed light on what may or may not have brought about the end of the Maya empire, researchers said.

The ancient Maya civilization encompassed an area twice the size of Germany, occupying what is now southern Mexico and northern Central America. At the height of the Maya empire, known as the Classic period, which stretched from about A.D. 250 to at least 900, perhaps as many as 25 million people lived in the region, potentially rivaling the population density of medieval Europe. [7 Bizarre Ancient Cultures That History Forgot]

Mysteriously, this ancient Maya Golden Age collapsed more than a thousand years ago. Its population declined catastrophically to a fraction of its former size. The ruins of its great cities are now mostly overgrown by jungle.

Scientists have suggested a number of potential causes of the end of the Classic period, none of which are mutually exclusive. Droughts may have led to critical water shortages. Deforestation linked with farming could have led to loss of fertile topsoil via erosion.

An escalation of violence may have also played a role in the Maya downfall. Previous research suggested that during the Classic period, warfare among the ancient Maya was mostly ritualized and limited in scope, with strict rules of engagement centered on procuring elite captives for tribute and ransom and minimal involvement of noncombatants. However, archaeologists unearthed signs that the ancient Maya at the end of the Classic period practiced the extraordinarily destructive tactics of total warfare, where both civilian and military resources were targeted, at times resulting in the widespread destruction of cities. [7 Technologies That Transformed Warfare]

"In termination events, cities were completely destroyed and royal families were removed &mdash sometimes thrown in wells or buried in ceremonial centers," study lead author David Wahl, a research geographer at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, told LiveScience.

Now, scientists find that the ancient Maya may have engaged in this type of total war much earlier than previously thought.

"We now have, for the first time, a picture of the broader impacts of a Classic-period Maya attack," Wahl said. "We see that the tactics used had negative consequences for the local population in such a way that, in this case, the trajectory of settlement in the city was permanently changed."

The researchers made their discovery while investigating past environmental changes around the archaeological site of Witzna in the Petén region of Guatemala, which encompasses the northern third of that country.

"The biggest challenge in this study &mdash indeed, most of the work I've done in Petén &mdash is the remoteness of the field site," Wahl said. "There are no roads to the lake, so all equipment and supplies are carried in, down a steep 100-meter [330 feet] escarpment. The lake is ringed by sawgrass &mdash sedges with edges as sharp as they sound &mdash and it took a crew of around eight people three days to penetrate the sedges and build a pier just to access the open water. This involved standing in chest-deep water swinging machetes to clear a path. Once we reached open water, we were pretty alarmed to see at least a dozen alligators lingering about intently watching our activity."

The scientists unexpectedly discovered a stela, or stone column, with readable emblem glyphs &mdash a hieroglyphic inscription dedicated to a city's lord. This revealed the site's Mayan name, Bahlam Jol, alongside customary symbols of rule &mdash the scepter of the lightning god K'awiil and a shield on a bound captive.

At Naranjo, a Classic Maya city 20 miles (32 kilometers) south of Witzna, prior work had found another stela. The inscription stated that in 697, Bahlam Jol was attacked and burned for a second time. In lake deposits adjacent to Witzna, Wahl and his colleagues discovered a 1.2-inch (3 centimeters) layer of charcoal resulting from a massive fire, by far the largest in the 1,700 years worth of sediment they looked at. Carbon dating of a seed in this charcoal layer suggested the fire happened in the last decade of the seventh century, supporting the Naranjo stela's inscription.

The razing of all key structures across Witzna, including the royal palace as well as monuments inscribed with glyphs, supported the idea this site experienced major destruction. In addition, Wahl and his colleagues also found that before the end of the seventh century, lake deposits showed many signs of human activity &mdash such as farming residues and vestiges from burning &mdash but these declined dramatically after the presumed attack.

Although the destruction seen at Witzna was reminiscent of that seen at the end of the Classic period, there were differences. "You do see the persistence of the royal lineage there after the attack, whereas in the Terminal Classic, the royal family is either killed or removed," Wahl said. "But in Witzna, the city was wiped out, like you see in the Terminal Classic."

The symbol "puluuy," which was used to describe the burning of Bahlam Jol, was previously seen at other Maya sites. This suggests that such burning was perhaps more common in ancient Maya warfare than previously known, the researchers said.

All in all, these findings suggest such destructive total warfare was practiced even during the peak of ancient Maya prosperity and artistic sophistication, challenging theories suggesting that it was unique to the waning days of Maya civilization. As such, perhaps it played less of a role in the collapse of the Maya empire than some had previously suggested.

"I think, based on this evidence, the theory that a presumed shift to total warfare was a major factor in the collapse of Classic Maya society is no longer viable. We must look for other causes," study co-author Francisco Estrada-Belli at Tulane University in New Orleans said in a statement.

The scientists detailed their findings online Aug. 5 in the journal Nature Human Behavior.


Main keywords of the article below: 13th, language, used, variants, developed, record, old, ancient, script, demotic, protodynastic, bc, became, hieroglyphs, egyptian, hieratic, times, native, systems, writing, popular, latest, include, egypt, cursive, hieroglyphics, kingdom, century, onward, 3500.

KEY TOPICS
The native writing systems of Ancient Egypt used to record the Egyptian language include both the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic from Protodynastic times, the 13th century BC cursive variants of the hieroglyphs which became popular, then the latest Demotic script developed from Hieratic, from 3500 BC onward. [1] The term Demotic, in the context of Egypt, came to refer to both the script and the language that followed the Late Ancient Egyptian stage, i.e. from the Nubian 25th dynasty until its marginalization by the Greek Koine in the early centuries AD. [1]

Given the lack of direct evidence, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". [2] In this lesson, we will discuss some of the major achievements of ancient Egypt, including its unification by King Menes, the pyramids, hieroglyphics, and the Egyptian calendar. [3]

Ancient alphabets & hieroglyphic characters explained: with an account of the Egyptian priests, their classes, initiation time, & sacrifices by the aztecs and their birds, in the Arabic language. [2] The Ancient Egyptian scribe, or sesh, was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and dena (arithmetics). [1] Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Ancient History Encyclopedia Egyptian Hieroglyphs Priscila Scoville The Egyptian hieroglyphic script was one of the writing systems used by ancient Egyptians to represent their language. [4]

Hieroglyphs were used for most of the surviving forms of written communication during the Old and Middle Egyptian eras, at least for official documents hieratic was already being used for day-to-day administrative needs during the Old Kingdom. [1] Spelling and standards varied over time, so the writing of a word during the Old Kingdom might be considerably different during the New Kingdom. [2] Examples of "sets" of zoomorphic bowls are known from the Old Kingdom time. [5] Examples of clay tablets, a popular medium in Mesopotamia, dating to the late Old Kingdom (2686-2160 BCE) were found in the Dakhla Oasis, an area far away from the various locations where papyrus was produced. [4] It didn’t contain full sentences, and the first full sentence discovered by archaeologists is dated to the reign of the Second Dynasty of the Old Kingdom. [6]

Archaeologists divide ancient Egyptian history into three periods of unification: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and new Kingdom. [7] Old Kingdom was the most peaceful period in Egyptian history: separated by the Sinai desert from another center of civilization, Mesopotamia, and isolated by the great deserts in Africa, the Egyptian leisurely class (those who did not work on the farm, primarily the upper class) enjoyed the luxury of contemplation of the afterlife. [7]

European interest in ancient Egypt was strong in Roman times and revived in the Renaissance, when the wealth of Egyptian remains in the city of Rome was supplemented by information provided by visitors to Egypt itself. [8] He lived over 5,000 years ago, and while ancient writers sometimes credited him as being the first pharaoh of a united Egypt we know today that this is not true -- there was a group of Egyptian rulers that predated Menes. [9]


The Egyptian hieroglyphic script was one of the writing systems used by ancient Egyptians to represent their language. [4] Ancient Egyptian writing is known as hieroglyphics ('sacred carvings') and developed at some point prior to. [4] The Ancient Egyptians used picture words to write called hieroglyphics. [10] Ancient Egyptian History for Kids: Hieroglyphics Parents and Teachers : Support Ducksters by following us on or. [10] This made it possible to conclude that the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing was a mixture of signals representing sounds, ideas and words, not a common alphabet. [4]

Hieroglyphs were nothing more than a very sophisticated system of known symbols in ancient Egypt. [6] Much of what is known about ancient Egypt is due to the activities of its scribes. [1] Even those associated with ancient Egypt were usually transmitted in Greek forms. [1] I currently study Ancient Egypt and its relations with the Near East in time of Akhenaten. [4] In ancient Egypt, scribes were highly respected for their knowledge and skill in using this gift of the gods and this position was a vehicle of upward social mobility. [4]


Scholars often refer to dynasties 18-20 as encompassing the "New Kingdom," a period that lasted ca. 1550-1070 B.C. This time period takes place after the Hyksos had been driven out of Egypt by a series of Egyptian rulers and the country was reunited. [9] They are joined by dozens of large and small obelisks, which are pointed stone pillars that the pharaohs and other prominent Egyptians built to commemorate their great deeds, worship the sun god Ra, and provide magical protection and stability for Egypt's tombs, temples, and kingdom. [3]

The need for record keeping in the Old Kingdom led to the creation of language, called Hieroglyphics (sacred words). [7] Views of Egypt were dominated by the classical tradition that it was the land of ancient wisdom this wisdom was thought to inhere in the hieroglyphic script, which was believed to impart profound symbolic ideas, not--as it in fact does--the sounds and words of texts. [8] The flooding of the Nile occurred between June and August and the fertile soil it created was vital to ancient Egypt's survival, with fertility playing an important role in Egyptian religion. [9]

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty, between 2055 and 1650 BCE. During this period, the funerary cult of Osiris rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion. [11] The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the Twenty-Sixth Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests, and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. [11] The oldest mathematical text from ancient Egypt discovered so far, though, is the Moscow Papyrus, which dates from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom around 2000 - 1800 BCE. [12]

The great days of Ancient Egypt fell between c. 3000 BCE and c. 1000 BCE, but the civilization remained very much a going concern for centuries after this. [13] Ancient Egypt, civilization in northeastern Africa that dates from the 4th millennium bce. [8] At its greatest extent, in c. 1250 BCE, Ancient Egypt occupied the land in all directions from the Syrian coast in the north, to the Red Sea in the east, down the Nile Valley to Nubia in the south, and spreading west inland into the Lybian Desert. [13] Development of the writing system in ancient Egypt was different than in Mesopotamia. [14] The civilization of Ancient Egypt was one of the earliest in world history. [13] The civilization of Ancient Egypt is known for its stupendous achievements in a whole range of fields, including art and architecture, engineering, medicine and statecraft. [13] Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but its extent is unclear. [13] No consistent political history of ancient Egypt can be written. [8]

In 2013, during his third digging season, he came upon something quite unexpected: entire rolls of papyrus, some a few feet long and still relatively intact, written in hieroglyphics as well as hieratic, the cursive script the ancient Egyptians used for everyday communication. [15] Egyptian hieroglyphs are a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians, and are perhaps the most widely recognized form of hieroglyphic writing in the world. [16] This tradition started with the Egyptian priest Manetho, who lived during the third century B.C. His accounts of ancient Egyptian history were preserved by ancient Greek writers and, until the deciphering of hieroglyphic writing in the 19 th century, were one of the few historical accounts that scholars could read. [9] It is now possible to know much about ancient Egyptian culture from thousands of years past through their hieroglyphic writing. [16] It is nearly impossible to know the true pronunciation of many ancient Egyptian words, particularly since there are no vowels in hieroglyphic script. [16] The earliest example of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic script dates from about 3100 BC but scholars believe that ancient Egyptians started to write much earlier. [14]

For that reason ancient Egyptian scribes often reused the papyrus after deleting the old texts. [14]

Besides the early pyramids built for the deceased kings in the Old Kingdom, later kings congregated their tombs and temples to almost form a city of the dead, or the necropolis, such as the Saqqara, Giza, in the Old and Middle Kingdoms, to the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile River near Thebes, in the New Kingdom. [7] Unification called for authority of leadership, hence the divinity of the kings, reflected in the gigantic pyramids in the Old Kingdom. [7]

During his first digging season, in 2011, he established that the caves had served as a kind of boat storage depot during the fourth dynasty of the Old Kingdom, about 4,600 years ago. [15] Learn about Old Kingdom pharaohs and elites, tombs, temples, the Sphinx, and how new technology is unlocking their secrets. [17]


The Pharaoh was the ruler of Ancient Egypt, both politically and religiously. [13] Ancient Egypt was characterized by periods of unification interrupted by disintegration. [7] At times ancient Egypt ruled territory outside the modern-day country's border, controlling territory in what is now Sudan, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Palestine. [9] The life of Ancient Egypt centered around the river Nile and the fertile land along its banks. [13] Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population. [8] Ancient Egypt contributed immensely to human knowledge in science, art, architecture, and religion. [7] Egypt, ancient A discussion of some of the most important sites associated with ancient Egypt. [8] The reason that the ancients abandoned the harbor in favor of Ayn Soukhna would appear to be logistical: Ayn Soukhna is only about 75 miles from the capital of ancient Egypt. [15] The dominant visible legacy of ancient Egypt is in works of architecture and representational art. [8]


The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the third millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement--the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). [11] The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately followed the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt around 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. [11] Under King Djoser, the first king of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the royal capital of Egypt was moved to Memphis. [11] During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt (not called the Pharaoh until the New Kingdom) became a living god, who ruled absolutely and could demand the services and wealth of his subjects. [11]

Egyptian sculpture of the Old Kingdom: This sculpture was created in the Fourth Dynasty, and represents the goddess Hathor, King Menkaure, and the goddess Bat. [11] Egyptian artisans during the Old Kingdom perfected the art of sculpting and carving intricate relief decoration out of stone. [11]

The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period between the sixteenth century and the eleventh century BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. [11] The Old Kingdom of Egypt existed from the third through the sixth Dynasties (2686 BC-2182 BC). [11]

Newton’s Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms makes available much additional information and insight about the history of ancient Egypt as well as the history of other ancient kingdoms. [18] The New Kingdom is known as the golden age of ancient Egyptian history and is the period of Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun, Ramses II, and other famous pharaohs. [11] The Book of the Dead is the modern name of an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE. The original Egyptian name is translated as "Book of Coming Forth by Day," or "Book of Emerging Forth into the Light." [11]


We know from ancient writings that Egypt was experiencing many low Nile floods toward the end of the Old Kingdom. [19] If indeed the earliest hieroglyphic record demonstrates a linguistic system that could be classified as a distinct language rather than merely a predecessor of Egyptian, it would explain the enigmatic nature of many of the early inscriptions and the disappearance of many typical early signs before the Old Kingdom. [20] In hieroglyphics or hieratic, therefore, one is only likely to encounter either Middle Egyptian or the earlier literary form of the language, Old Egyptian, the language spoken in the Archaic Period (I & II Dynasties, c. 3100-2680) and the Old Kingdom (III-VI Dynasties, 2680-2159). [21] Alliteration, metathesis, metaphors, ellipses, anthropomorphisms and picturesque expressions are also found. ► early proto-rational writing ? • Late Old Kingdom (Dynasty 6) - Old Egyptian The administration of the Pharaonic State was considerable. [22]

Topics include: Arts and Crafts, Egypt and its Neighbors, Hieroglyphs and Egyptian Grammar, History of Egypt, History of Egyptology, Literature, Mummies, People and Daily Life, Pharaohs, Pyramids, Tombs, Temples, Reference Works, Religion, Science and Technology, Tutankhamun, and Women in Ancient Egypt. [23] Joyce Tyldesley, senior lecturer in Egyptology at the University of Manchester, is the author of Myths and Legends of Ancient Egypt (Allen Lane 2010) and Tutankhamen’s Curse: the developing history of an Egyptian king (Profile 2012). [24]


Natural resources in the Nile Valley during the rise of ancient Egypt included building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones, all of which contributed to the architecture, monuments, jewels, and other art forms for which this civilization would become well known. [11] The Late Period of Ancient Egypt (664-332 BCE) marked a maintenance of artistic tradition with subtle changes in the representation of the human form. [11] Ceramic plate (c. 3900 BCE): This is a plate from the Early Dynastic Period of Ancient Egypt. [11] Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BCE to 30 BCE. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. [11] One example of such stelae is the Annals of Amenemhat II, an important historical document for the reign of Amenemhat II (r. 1929-1895 BCE) and also for the history of Ancient Egypt and understanding kingship in general. [11] Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks. [11] Ancient Egypt was able to flourish because of its location on the Nile River, which floods at predictable intervals, allowing controlled irrigation, and providing nutrient-rich soil favorable to agriculture. [11] Due to the scarcity of wood, the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and limestone. [11] One major contribution from the Late Period of ancient Egypt was the Brooklyn Papyrus. [11] The huge number of stelae surviving from ancient Egypt constitute one of the largest and most significant sources of information on those civilizations. [11] The monumental sculpture of Ancient Egypt is world famous, but refined and delicate small works exist in much greater numbers. [11] The so-called reserve heads, or plain hairless heads, are especially naturalistic, though the extent to which there was real portraiture in Ancient Egypt is still debated. [11] The stelae of Ancient Egypt served many purposes, from funerary, to marking territory, to publishing decrees. [11] The sculpture pictured below--the fact that a private woman could have a sculpture made for herself--speaks volumes for the equality of gender in ancient Egypt. [11] There is no evidence for this Sothic cycle in ancient Egypt. [18] There were schools in ancient Egypt, but hardly anyone went to them. [25]

One of the most recognizable ancient Egyptian symbols, the ankh, is one of the few vestiges to survive the decay of the old religions and still be in use today. [26] During the Old Kingdom, royal mastabas eventually developed into rock-cut "step pyramids" and then "true pyramids," although non-royal use of mastabas continued to be used for more than a thousand years. [11] During the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh had access to this material, which scholars refer to as the Pyramid Texts. [11] The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom and the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom. [11] Royal funerary practices in the Middle Kingdom remained much the same as in the Old Kingdom, with kings continuing to build pyramids for their burials. [11] Unlike the Old Kingdom, however, Middle Kingdom royal pyramids were not quite as well constructed, and so few of them remain as pyramid structures today. [11] The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large number of pyramids constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. [11] Known as the "Age of the Pyramids," the Old Kingdom was characterized by revolutionary advancements in architecture. [11] These tombs were built in the form of great pyramids, and for this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as the "Age of the Pyramids." [11] As in the Old Kingdom, stone was most often reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used for palaces, fortresses, everyday houses, and town walls. [11] Unlike the Old Kingdom, objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs however, they reappeared toward the end of the Middle Kingdom. [11] In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in expressions of personal piety and what could be called a democratization of the afterlife. [11] While the Old Kingdom was a period of internal security and prosperity, it was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period. [11] During the Old Kingdom Period, the ankh was well known as a symbol of eternal life. [26] In the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts, which contained spells to help the dead reach the afterlife successfully, were only accessible to the elite. [11] Step Pyramid at Saqqara: Djoser’s step pyramid was the first of the great pyramids built during the Old Kingdom in Eqypt. [11] These structures became models for the Step Pyramids that would be developed later in the Old Kingdom. [11] In his sixth year, he re-dredged an Old Kingdom canal around the first cataract to facilitate travel to upper Nubia, using this to launch a series of brutal campaigns. [11]

The chronological gap of some 500 years between these earliest abbreviated notations written in Egypt and the first narrative inscriptions from the Old Kingdom has been a source of uneasiness for scholars. [20] The Old Kingdom includes the first important dynasties that made Egypt an advanced civilization. [19] No major foreign powers threatened Egypt, so the Old Kingdom had no permanent army. [19]

It has been argued that such linguistic diversity also existed in Egypt in the late fourth millennium BC and had an impact on the phonological development of the earliest attested language phase (called "pre-Old Egyptian") into Old Egyptian ( Kammerzell 2005, 165-247, esp. 198). [20] When I visited Egypt, Egyptian guides who could read hieroglyphics appeared to enjoy using the sounds that they could pronounce but that many European tourists had never heard before. [21] For most of Egyptian history the language written in actual hieroglyphics or in its cursive counterpart, hieratic, was the literary language initiated in the XII Dynasty (1991-1786) of the Middle Kingdom. [21] The issue of the pronunciation of the Ancient Egyptian language has recently become confused by popular presentations that ignore some of the essential and undoubted characteristics of Egyptian hieroglyphics, most importantly that Egyptian, just as today is usually the case with Arabic and Hebrew, did not write vowels -- except in late transcriptions of foreign (mainly Greek) words. [21] "Egypt" comes from the Greek work Aegyptos, the Greek pronunciation of the ancient Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah' ("Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah"), the original name of the city of Memphis. [27] That is called "Middle Egyptian," and it became the Classical language of Ancient Egypt. [21] Egyptian Timeline A brief introduction into the different historical periods of Ancient Egypt. [23]

In the New Kingdom as well as in the Late Period, archaism were savoured because the ancient word-images were believed to arouse the Kas of old and hence provide the necessary magical succession. [22] Egyptian knew six stages : Archaic Egyptian (first two Dynasties), Old Egyptian (Old Kingdom), Middle Egyptian (First Intermediate Period & Middle Kingdom), Late Egyptian (New Kingdom & Third Intermediate Period), Demotic Egyptian (Late Period) and Coptic (Roman Period). [22]

For the later Old Kingdom, it has been estimated that only 1% of the entire population possessed writing skills, the vast majority of whom were probably men. 13 In view of the extremely centralized context in which writing was used in the Early Dynastic period, this percentage was probably even lower in the Early Dynastic period. [20] This development of a handwriting script leads to the use of new media and changing perceptions of writing, which materializes in the Old Kingdom. [20] The sign corpus and the writing system represented by early telegraphic notations differ in structure and appearance from the first narrative inscriptions of the Old Kingdom ( Schweitzer 2005 ). [20] The language itself has the style of the "records" of the Old Kingdom, often additive and with little self-reflection (which starts with the First Intermediate Period). [22] The language remained layered and archaic elements were sometimes introduced or copied to give the text a feeling of antiquity (for that reason, the Memphis Theology was regarded as an Old Kingdom text). [22] The Old Kingdom began with the Third Dynasty of kings in 2686 B.C. and ended with the Eighth Dynasty, more than 500 years later. [19] During the Fifth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the sun god Ra took a dominant place in the state religion. [19] Almost all the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom (c2686-2125 BC) and Middle Kingdom (c2055-1650 BC) built pyramid-tombs in Egypt’s northern deserts. [24] The main aim was to investigate the development of this provincial town from the end of Old Kingdom (2200 BC) to the beginning of the Middle Kingdom (ca. 1850 BC). [23] The length of the skirt varied depending on the fashion of the time in the time of the Old Kingdom they were short while in the Middle Kingdom they were calf length. [27] Old forms (although syntactically problematic) were retained because of the divine nature of words and the idealization of the Old Kingdom. [22] Memphis (also a Greek name) was the capital of the Old Kingdom. [19]

Ancient Egyptian children did not wear clothes until they were about six years old when they would wear the same clothes as men and women. [27] This event defined the most important breach with the past : the end of the exclusivity of the mythical mode of thought and its already complex spoken language and the start of the history of Ancient Egypt. [22] The earliest inhabitants of ancient Egypt lived in huts made from papyrus reeds. However, it was soon discovered that the mud left behind after the annual flooding of the Nile (inundation) could be made into bricks which could be used for building. [27] He was responsible for making laws and keeping order, ensuring that ancient Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the Gods happy so that the Nile flooded and there was a good harvest. [27] Ancient Egypt, centered in North Africa in the Nile Delta, is arguably the most powerful and influential civilizations of of the ancient world. [27] Although Ancient Egypt is a hot, desert country where the lack of water makes it difficult to grow crops and raise animals, the annual flooding of the river Nile (inundation) between the months of June and September made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile areas of the ancient world. [27] A list in the can we list the date of the papyrus here? Gebelein Papyri (Fourth Dynasty 2613-2494 BC) mention the attribution of a trained scribe to each group of potters P. Andrassy, "Pot marks in textual evidence?" in Non-textual Marking Systems in Ancient Egypt (and Elsewhere) (Lingua Aegyptia Studia Monographica 16), edited by J. Budka, F. Kammerzell, and S. Rzepka (Hamburg, Germany: Widmaier Verlag). [20] The result being, that Ancient Egypt is no longer neglected in the history of the formation of the Western intellect. [22] The source of the river is in Burundi in Central Africa, it then flows through Sudan, Ethiopia and Ancient Egypt and empties into the Mediterranean sea. [27] In Non-textual marking systems in Ancient Egypt (and elsewhere) (Hamburg, Germany). [20] Everyone in Ancient Egypt was expected to marry, with husbands and wives being allocated complementary but opposite roles within the marriage. [24] Women's work was not confined to the home in ancient Egypt, unlike in Babylonian society. Women were allowed to own property in ancient Egypt, like in Babylonian society. [28] These discoveries were published in a book called Description de l'Egypte and established modern Egyptology (the study of ancient Egypt) and archaeology. [29] One of the greatest legacies of ancient Egypt was the invention of papyrus, reed paper. [29] Cleopatra VII, last queen of ancient Egypt, won the hearts of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, two of Rome’s most important men. [24] The Agricultural Revolution appeared relatively late in ancient Egypt. [19]

Egyptians had created around 800 hieroglyphs by the New Kingdom period. [6]

Like most ancient scripts, the origin of Egyptian hieroglyphs is poorly understood. [4] The ancient hieroglyphs of Egypt continue to be one of the most fascinating languages. [6] Of course, the most influenced language is Arabic, and the dialect spoken in Egypt has many words with roots in ancient times. [6]

Take the Egyptian Story of Creation, the Ogdoad, which describes the basic and eternal cosmological conditions and the factual creation, not of the entire Universe wich is considered eternal, but of the ancient known part of it, our Milky Way galaxy. [6] An even more abbreviated script lacking any pictorial trace known as demotic 'popular' came in use around the 7th century BCE. The Egyptians called it sekh shat, "writing for documents". [4] As writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic (priestly) and demotic (popular) scripts. [2] Hieratic is a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphs and was first used during the First Dynasty (c. 2925 BC - c. 2775 BC). [1] The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III ), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC). [2] Most surviving texts in the Egyptian language are primarily written in the hieroglyphic script. [1] As Egyptian writing evolved during its long history, different versions of the Egyptian hieroglyphic script were developed. [4] The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. [2] The native name for Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is "writing of the words of god." [1] Hieroglyphic writing representing a pintail duck is read in Egyptian as sꜣ, derived from the main consonants of the Egyptian word for this duck:'s', 'ꜣ' and 't'. (Note that ꜣ (, two half-rings opening to the left), sometimes replaced by the digit '3', is the Egyptian alef ). [2]

The Egyptians began to form a pictographic written language about 5000 years ago, which they continued to use for more than 3500 years, until about 400 AD. Eventually, the pictures they used to represent words came to represent sounds. [1] The Rosetta Stone was made, a stela carrying a priestly decree from the reign of Ptolemy V in three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek script. [4] Decoding Egyptian Hieroglyphs: How to read the secret language of the Pharaohs. [4] In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, replacing the earlier serekh. [1] The vessels were buried in tombs, and it is also in tombs of the Naqada III/Dynasty 0 period (c. 3200-3000 BCE) that the earliest securely dated examples of Egyptian hieroglyphs have been found. [4] Egyptologists refer to Egyptian writing as hieroglyphs, today standing as the world's earliest known writing system. [1] Most people refer to hieroglyphs when they speak about Egyptian writing. [1] It would have been possible to write all Egyptian words in the manner of these signs, but the Egyptians never did so and never simplified their complex writing into a true alphabet. [2] Egyptian writing is often redundant: in fact, it happens very frequently that a word might follow several characters writing the same sounds, in order to guide the reader. [2] Egyptian scribes used papyrus and other alternative writing surfaces, including writing boards generally made of wood. [4] According to Egyptian tradition, the god Thoth created writing to make the Egyptians wiser and to strengthen their memory. [4]

Around 2500 BCE we find the oldest known examples of Egyptian literature, the " Pyramid Texts", engraved on pyramids ' walls, and later, around 2000 BCE, there emerged a new type of text known as the Coffin Texts, a set of magical and liturgical spells inscribed on coffins. [4] Hieroglyphs are employed in two ways in Egyptian texts: as ideograms that represent the idea depicted by the pictures and more commonly as phonograms denoting their phonetic value. [1] As in the Arabic script, not all vowels were written in Egyptian hieroglyphs it is debatable whether vowels were written at all. [2] Because of their pictorial elegance, Herodotus and other important Greeks believed that Egyptian hieroglyphs were something sacred, so they referred to them as 'holy writing'. [4] A few extra characters had to be added to represent sounds of the Egyptian language which did not exist in the Greek pronunciation of the time (e.g., the phoneme /f/). [1] A few extra characters had to be added to represent sounds of the Egyptian language which did not exist in the Greek pronunciation of the time (like, e.g. the "f"). [1] Christianized Egyptians developed the Coptic alphabet (an offshoot of the Greek uncial alphabet), the final stage in the development of the Egyptian language, employed to represent their language. [4] The glyphs themselves since the Ptolemaic period were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ ( tà hieroglyphikà ) "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". [2] Another way in which hieroglyphs work is illustrated by the two Egyptian words pronounced pr (usually vocalised as per ). [2] By the 4th century, few Egyptians were capable of reading hieroglyphs, and the "myth of allegorical hieroglyphs" was ascendant. [2]

There were periods in Egyptian history when people refrained from inscribing these amulets with a name, for fear they might fall into somebody's hands conferring power over the bearer of the name. [1] The cartouche has become a symbol representing protection from evil and give good luck Egyptians believed that if you had your name written down in some place, then you would not disappear after you died. [1] The determinative of the plural is a shortcut to signal three occurrences of the word, that is to say, its plural (since the Egyptian language had a dual, sometimes indicated by two strokes). [2] While Egyptian culture is one of the influences of Western civilization, few words of Egyptian origin remain in English. [1]

The Egyptians were perfectly content to include older orthography ("historical spelling") alongside newer practices, as though it were acceptable in English to use archaic spellings in modern texts. [2]

As Egypt became part of the Greek and (later) the Roman empire, the hieroglyphic writing system was replaced by the Greek alphabet used first to write magical and later Christian manuscripts (Coptic). [1] Papyrus, the chief portable writing medium in Egypt, appears during the First dynasty (c. 3000-2890 BCE): the earliest surviving example we know of comes from a blank roll found in the Tomb of Hemaka, an official of King Den. [4]

During the 7th century, Egypt was dominated by Islam, and the damage of old texts by the two new religions had already started. [6] Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule (intermittent in the 6th and 5th centuries BC), and after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods. [2] During the Ptolemaic (332-30 BCE) and the Roman Period (30 BCE-395 CE) in Egypt, Greek and Roman culture became increasingly influential. [4]

Many of these objects were looted and we know about them due to the approximately 150 surviving labels, which contain the earliest known writing in Egypt. [4]

Please note that this article is focused on hieroglyphs, not other forms of ancient Egyptian writings like Demotic and Hieratic scripts. [6] In the ancient Egyptian language, hieroglyphs were called medu netjer, 'the gods' words' as it was believed that writing was an invention of the gods. [4] Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. [5] Ancient Egyptian scribes consistently avoided leaving large areas of blank space in their writing, and might add additional phonetic complements or sometimes even invert the order of signs if this would result in a more aesthetically pleasing appearance (good scribes attended to the artistic, and even religious, aspects of the hieroglyphs, and would not simply view them as a communication tool). [2] Champollion's achievement in deciphering the Rosetta Stone unlocked the secret of the ancient Egyptian writing system and allowed the world to finally read into Egyptian history. [4] It sometimes happens that the pronunciation of words might be changed because of their connection to Ancient Egyptian: in this case, it is not rare for writing to adopt a compromise in notation, the two readings being indicated jointly. [2] Although it is almost certain that we will never find how to pronounce words in the ancient Egyptian language like people who lived millennia ago, it is still possible to read their symbols - ones that contain a magic that is nothing more than the mystical feeling emitted while reading words closed in the symbols thousands of years ago. [6] Religious texts generally have no punctuation at all, whilst texts from the latter part of the ancient Egyptian language have full stops between important lines of thought. [1]

Once one understands hieroglyphic it is easy to determine if one is examining a retrograde text because it will simply make no sense at all!As an aid to reading, and perhaps to the ancient Egyptian's sense of aesthetics, hieroglyphs were also packed together into neat patterns. [1] In 1799 when the discovery of the Rosetta Stone occurred, scholars finally had an example of hieroglyphic, demotic and Ancient Greek that they were all reasonably certain were the translations of the same passage. [1] The Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts - hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. [2] One year later, the Rosetta Stone was found, a decree of Ptolemy V, with the same text written in Greek, demotic and hieroglyphic writing. [4]

For many years, the earliest known hieroglyphic inscription was the Narmer Palette, found during excavations at Hierakonpolis (modern Kawm al-Ahmar) in the 1890s, which has been dated to c.3200 BC. However recent archaeological findings reveal that symbols on Gerzean pottery, c.4000 BC, resemble the traditional hieroglyph forms. [1] It is a very old form of writing that they starting using as early as 3000 B.C. Hieroglyphics was a very complicated way of writing involving 1000s of symbols. [10] Since writing in hieroglyphics was so complicated, it took years of education and practice to be able to do it. [10] Until recently, given the time span we are talking about, the decipherment of hieroglyphic was hampered because those attempting to decipher the hieroglyphs assigned emotional meanings to the actual symbols used. [1] There was also a form of cursive hieroglyphic script used for religious documents on papyrus, such as the multi-authored Books of the Dead in the Ramesside Period this script was closer to the stone-carved hieroglyphs, but was not as cursive as hieratic, lacking the wide use of ligatures. [1] Sometimes scribes used a faster short form of hieroglyphics on papyrus called hieratic. [10] While hieratic still carries some traces of the pictorial hieroglyphic appearance, demotic has no pictorial trace and it is difficult to link demotic signs with its equivalent hieroglyph. [4] Apart from hieroglyphs, hieratic (a cursive version of hieroglyphic writing) and demotic (even more cursive and abbreviated) were employed in Egypt's 3,000+-year history of hieroglyphic writing. [1]

As the stone presented a hieroglyphic and a demotic version of the same text in parallel with a Greek translation, plenty of material for falsifiable studies in translation was suddenly available. [2] This stone had the same message written in both hieroglyphics and Greek. [10]

Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. [2] In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590, originally short for nominalised hieroglyphic (1580s, with a plural hieroglyphics ), from adjectival use ( hieroglyphic character ). [2] In hieroglyphic, the name of the King or Pharaoh and gods' names are often placed within a circle called a cartouche. [1] Most non- determinative hieroglyphic signs are phonetic in nature, meaning that the sign is read independently of its visual characteristics (according to the rebus principle where, for example, the picture of an eye could stand for the English words eye and I ). [2]

As in many ancient writing systems, words are not separated by blanks or by punctuation marks. [2] By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. [6]

The words found on ancient reliefs became a basis for other languages. [6]

Ancient Egyptian literature comprises a wide array of narrative and poetic forms including inscriptions on tombs, stele, obelisks. [4]

The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, and on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. [2] The written language of the old gods plunged into oblivion for nearly two millennia, until Champollion's great discovery. [4] The second version being a later form of the name of the Aten, representing the elimination of names of old deities. [5]


Our very first achievement was the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by King Menes somewhere between 3100 BCE and 2900 BCE. This marked the beginning of the first Egyptian dynasty, and King Menes became the first pharaoh, or supreme ruler. [3] It took a little time, but through wise governing, common laws, and new religious practices, the Two Lands became one Egypt under one pharaoh, or supreme ruler, namely, King Menes, who established the first Egyptian dynasty. [3]

His general, Ptolemy, on becoming independent ruler of the country in 305 BCE, was also crowned pharaoh, and his line lasted down to the famous queen, Cleopatra, who died in 31 BCE. Some may regard the civilization of Egypt under the Ptolemies as being more Greek than Egyptian, but the older civilization was still vital enough for the kings to feel the need to present themselves to their subjects in the traditional style of the pharaohs. [13] When Egypt came under Greek and Roman rule, their gods and goddesses were incorporated into Egyptian religion. [9] Between the 15th and 18th centuries, Egypt had a minor but significant position in general views of antiquity, and its monuments gradually became better known through the work of scholars in Europe and travelers in the country itself the finest publications of the latter were by Richard Pococke, Frederik Ludwig Norden, and Carsten Niebuhr, all of whose works in the 18th century helped to stimulate an Egyptian revival in European art and architecture. [8] After studying at Paris' famous cole Normale Suprieure, Tallet went to Egypt to do an alternative military service by teaching in an Egyptian high school he stayed on to work at the French Institute, where he began his archaeological work. [15]

Literary works were written in all the main later phases of the Egyptian language--Middle Egyptian the "classical" form of the Middle and New kingdoms, continuing in copies and inscriptions into Roman times Late Egyptian, from the 19th dynasty to about 700 bce and the demotic script from the 4th century bce to the 3rd century ce --but many of the finest and most complex are among the earliest. [8] The civil year had 365 days and started in principle when Sirius, or the Dog Star--also known in Greek as Sothis (Ancient Egyptian: Sopdet)--became visible above the horizon after a period of absence, which at that time occurred some weeks before the Nile began to rise for the inundation. [8] The later Egyptian temples look very similar to early Greek temples and it has been suggested that the Ancient Greeks got the very idea of monumental building in stone from the Egyptians. [13] "Ancient Egyptian was a living oral language and most hieroglyphs represent the sounds of consonants and certain emphatically expressed vowels," wrote Barry Kemp, a professor at the University of Cambridge, in his book "100 Hieroglyphs: Think Like an Egyptian" (Granta Books, 2005). [9] One characteristic of ancient civilizations, including the Egyptian one, was language. [7] The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop. This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bce, the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East. [8] Following notes written by an English traveler in the early 19th century and two French pilots in the 1950s, Pierre Tallet made a stunning discovery: a set of 30 caves honeycombed into limestone hills but sealed up and hidden from view in a remote part of the Egyptian desert, a few miles inland from the Red Sea, far from any city, ancient or modern. [15]

Coptic, an Egyptian language that uses the Greek alphabet, was widely used after Christianity spread throughout Egypt. [9] The Greeks used their own alphabet for writing the Egyptian language, adding several glyphs from the demotic script for sounds not present in Greek the result being the Coptic alphabet. [16] One of the cultural achievements of the Egyptians was their writing system: hieroglyphics, a pictographic language used primarily for religious purposes. [7] We Egyptians are also famous for our hieroglyphics, a system of picture writing that developed sometime around 3300-3200 BCE and contained between 700 and 800 glyphs, or picture symbols that represented objects, ideas, or sounds. [3]

We'll focus especially on King Menes's unification of Egypt, the pyramids and obelisks that define Egypt's landscape, our writing system of hieroglyphics, and our calendar. [3] The carving has hieroglyphic inscriptions that say that Claudius is the "Son of Ra, Lord of the Crowns," and is "King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands." [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Maya Civilization Was Ultraviolent, Even Before Its Collapse

A hieroglyphic inscription found in an ancient Maya city now reveals kingdoms making up this civilization waged extraordinarily destructive warfare much earlier than previously thought, a new study finds.

These findings may shed light on what may or may not have brought about the end of the Maya empire, researchers said.

The ancient Maya civilization encompassed an area twice the size of Germany, occupying what is now southern Mexico and northern Central America. At the height of the Maya empire, known as the Classic period, which stretched from about A.D. 250 to at least 900, perhaps as many as 25 million people lived in the region, potentially rivaling the population density of medieval Europe. [7 Bizarre Ancient Cultures That History Forgot]

Mysteriously, this ancient Maya Golden Age collapsed more than a thousand years ago. Its population declined catastrophically to a fraction of its former size. The ruins of its great cities are now mostly overgrown by jungle.

Scientists have suggested a number of potential causes of the end of the Classic period, none of which are mutually exclusive. Droughts may have led to critical water shortages. Deforestation linked with farming could have led to loss of fertile topsoil via erosion.

An escalation of violence may have also played a role in the Maya downfall. Previous research suggested that during the Classic period, warfare among the ancient Maya was mostly ritualized and limited in scope, with strict rules of engagement centered on procuring elite captives for tribute and ransom and minimal involvement of noncombatants. However, archaeologists unearthed signs that the ancient Maya at the end of the Classic period practiced the extraordinarily destructive tactics of total warfare, where both civilian and military resources were targeted, at times resulting in the widespread destruction of cities. [7 Technologies That Transformed Warfare]

"In termination events, cities were completely destroyed and royal families were removed &mdash sometimes thrown in wells or buried in ceremonial centers," study lead author David Wahl, a research geographer at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, told LiveScience.

Now, scientists find that the ancient Maya may have engaged in this type of total war much earlier than previously thought.

"We now have, for the first time, a picture of the broader impacts of a Classic-period Maya attack," Wahl said. "We see that the tactics used had negative consequences for the local population in such a way that, in this case, the trajectory of settlement in the city was permanently changed."

The researchers made their discovery while investigating past environmental changes around the archaeological site of Witzna in the Petén region of Guatemala, which encompasses the northern third of that country.

"The biggest challenge in this study &mdash indeed, most of the work I've done in Petén &mdash is the remoteness of the field site," Wahl said. "There are no roads to the lake, so all equipment and supplies are carried in, down a steep 100-meter [330 feet] escarpment. The lake is ringed by sawgrass &mdash sedges with edges as sharp as they sound &mdash and it took a crew of around eight people three days to penetrate the sedges and build a pier just to access the open water. This involved standing in chest-deep water swinging machetes to clear a path. Once we reached open water, we were pretty alarmed to see at least a dozen alligators lingering about intently watching our activity."

The scientists unexpectedly discovered a stela, or stone column, with readable emblem glyphs &mdash a hieroglyphic inscription dedicated to a city's lord. This revealed the site's Mayan name, Bahlam Jol, alongside customary symbols of rule &mdash the scepter of the lightning god K'awiil and a shield on a bound captive.

At Naranjo, a Classic Maya city 20 miles (32 kilometers) south of Witzna, prior work had found another stela. The inscription stated that in 697, Bahlam Jol was attacked and burned for a second time. In lake deposits adjacent to Witzna, Wahl and his colleagues discovered a 1.2-inch (3 centimeters) layer of charcoal resulting from a massive fire, by far the largest in the 1,700 years worth of sediment they looked at. Carbon dating of a seed in this charcoal layer suggested the fire happened in the last decade of the seventh century, supporting the Naranjo stela's inscription.

The razing of all key structures across Witzna, including the royal palace as well as monuments inscribed with glyphs, supported the idea this site experienced major destruction. In addition, Wahl and his colleagues also found that before the end of the seventh century, lake deposits showed many signs of human activity &mdash such as farming residues and vestiges from burning &mdash but these declined dramatically after the presumed attack.

Although the destruction seen at Witzna was reminiscent of that seen at the end of the Classic period, there were differences. "You do see the persistence of the royal lineage there after the attack, whereas in the Terminal Classic, the royal family is either killed or removed," Wahl said. "But in Witzna, the city was wiped out, like you see in the Terminal Classic."

The symbol "puluuy," which was used to describe the burning of Bahlam Jol, was previously seen at other Maya sites. This suggests that such burning was perhaps more common in ancient Maya warfare than previously known, the researchers said.

All in all, these findings suggest such destructive total warfare was practiced even during the peak of ancient Maya prosperity and artistic sophistication, challenging theories suggesting that it was unique to the waning days of Maya civilization. As such, perhaps it played less of a role in the collapse of the Maya empire than some had previously suggested.

"I think, based on this evidence, the theory that a presumed shift to total warfare was a major factor in the collapse of Classic Maya society is no longer viable. We must look for other causes," study co-author Francisco Estrada-Belli at Tulane University in New Orleans said in a statement.

The scientists detailed their findings online Aug. 5 in the journal Nature Human Behavior.


7 The Dakhleh Cases

At Dakhleh Oasis rests the remains of 1,087 ancient Egyptians. When researchers investigated the bodies in 2018, six cases showed cancer. They included a child with leukemia, a man with rectal tumors, and several others who might have contracted the cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV).

Although cancer is nothing new&mdasheven HPV developed before humans&mdashit was interesting to compare notes. Similar to today, HPV is prevalent in young adults in their twenties and thirties. This was also the case at the oasis cemetery.

Though the disease could not be genetically confirmed, the age group and bone lesions suggested that HPV behaved the same among ancient populations. Statistics also suggested that the chances of developing cancer today in Western societies was around 100 times more than when these individuals were buried (3,000&ndash1,500 years ago).

Nothing in the culture&rsquos vast records proves that ancient Egyptians had a solid concept of cancer. They probably knew something was terribly wrong but had no specific treatment other than caring for visible symptoms, such as skin ulcers and pain. [4]


Ancient civilization of Meroe

Scientists investigated the archaeological site of Sedeinga, located on the western shore of the Nile River in Sudan, about 60 miles (100 kilometers) north of the river's third "cataract," or set of shallows.

Archaeologists first heard of the site from the tales of 19th-century travelers, who described the remains of the Egyptian temple of Queen Tiye, the chief wife of Amenhotep III and one of the most illustrious queens of ancient Egypt, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Amenhotep III's reign from about 1390 B.C. to 1353 B.C. marked the zenith of ancient Egyptian civilization &mdash in both political power and cultural achievement, according to the BBC.

The sandy area was once part of ancient Nubia, known for rich deposits of gold. Nubia hosted some of Africa's earliest kingdoms, and a few even ruled Egypt as pharaohs, according to the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago.

The site of Sedeinga is home to a large necropolis, known as the "city of the dead," stretching more than 60 acres (25 hectares). It holds the vestiges of at least 80 brick pyramids and more than 100 tombs from the kingdoms of Napata and Meroe, which lasted from the seventh century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. These kingdoms mixed the cultures of Egypt and the rest of Africa in ways still seen in Sudan today, researchers said.

Napata and Meroe formed a civilization known as the kingdom of Kush by their ancient Egyptian neighbors. Meroitic, the language of Meroe, borrowed written characters from ancient Egyptian. [Photos: Royal Nubian Statue With Egyptian Hieroglyphics]

"The Meroitic writing system, the oldest of the sub-Saharan region, still mostly resists our understanding," Vincent Francigny, an archaeologist at the French Archaeological Unit Sudan Antiquities Service, and co-director of the Sedeinga excavation, told Live Science. "While funerary texts, with very few variations, are quite well-known and can be almost completely translated, other categories of texts often remain obscure. In this context, every new text matters, as they can shed light on something new."


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The name Nubia is derived from the Noba people: nomads who settled the area in fourth-century AD following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language that is ancestral to Old Nubian, which was mostly used in religious texts dating from the eighth and fifteenth centuries. Before the fourth century, and throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, included under the name Ethiopia (Aethiopia).

Historically, the people of Nubia spoke at least two varieties of the Nubian language group, a subfamily that includes Nobiin (the descendant of Old Nubian), Kenuzi-Dongola, Midob and several related varieties in the northern part of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan. The Birgid language was spoken north of Nyala in Darfur, but has been extinct as late as 1970. However, the linguistic identity of the ancient Kerma culture of southern and central Nubia (also known as Upper Nubia), is uncertain some research suggests that it belonged to the Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic languages, [7] [8] while more recent studies indicate that the Kerma culture belonged to the Eastern Sudanic branch of Nilo-Saharan languages instead, and that other peoples of northern (or Lower) Nubia north of Kerma (such as the C-group culture and the Blemmyes) spoke Cushitic languages before the spread of Eastern Sudanic languages from southern (or Upper) Nubia. [9] [10] [11] [12]

Nubia was divided into three major regions: Upper, Middle, and Lower Nubia, in reference to their locations along the Nile. "Lower" referred to regions downstream and "upper" to regions upstream. Lower Nubia lay between the First and the Second Cataracts within the current borders of Egypt, Middle Nubia lay between the Second and the Third Cataracts, and Upper Nubia lay south of the Third Cataract. [13]

Prehistory (6000–3500 BC) Edit

In prehistoric times, North Africa was mostly occupied by nomadic cattle herders. [14] The Khartoum Mesolithic was a highly advanced culture in southern Nubia (near modern Khartoum). They created sophisticated pottery that is "perhaps the oldest known in the world". [14] : 17

By 5000 BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. The Sahara became drier and people began to domesticate sheep, goats, and cattle. [15] Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to suggest the presence of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa and the Nile Valley even to this day. [16] Nubian rock art depicts hunters using bows and arrows in the neolithic period, which is a precursor to Nubian archer culture in later times.

Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices, predating Stonehenge by almost 2,000 years. [17] This complexity as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt. [18]

Pre-Kerma A-Group (3500-3000 BC) Edit

Upper Nubia Edit

The poorly known "pre-Kerma" culture existed in Upper (Southern) Nubia on a stretch of fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract.

Lower Nubia Edit

Nubia has one of the oldest civilizations in the world. This history is often intertwined with Egypt to the north. [14] : 16 Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the Early A-Group, arose in Lower (Northern) Nubia. [19] They were sedentary agriculturalists, [15] : 6 traded with the Egyptians, and exported gold. [20] This trade is supported archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the A-Group graves. The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. [21] During this time, the Nubians began creating distinctive black topped, red pottery.

Around 3100 BC the A-group transitioned from the Early to Classical phases. "Arguably royal burials are known only at Qustul and possibly Sayala." [20] : 8 During this period, the wealth of A-group kings rivaled Egyptian kings. Royal A-group graves contained gold and richly decorated pottery. [14] : 19 Some scholars believe Nubian A-Group rulers and early Egyptian pharaohs used related royal symbols similarities in A-Group Nubia and Upper Egypt rock art support this position. Scholars from the University of Chicago Oriental Institute excavated at Qustul (near Abu Simbel – Modern Sudan), in 1960–64, and found artifacts which incorporated images associated with Egyptian pharaohs. Archeologist Bruce Williams studied the artifacts and concluded that "Egypt and Nubia A-Group culture shared the same official culture", "participated in the most complex dynastic developments", and "Nubia and Egypt were both part of the great East African substratum". [22] Williams also wrote that Qustul "could well have been the seat of Egypt's founding dynasty". [23] [24] David O'Connor wrote that the Qustul incense burner provides evidence that the A-group Nubian culture in Qustul marked the "pivotal change" from predynastic to dynastic "Egyptian monumental art". [25] However, "most scholars do not agree with this hypothesis", [26] as more recent finds in Egypt indicate that this iconography originated in Egypt instead of Nubia, and that the Qustul rulers adopted or emulated the symbols of Egyptian pharaohs. [27] [28] [29] [30]

Egypt in Nubia Edit

Writing developed in Egypt around 3300 BC. In their writings, Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti", or "The Land of the Bow," as the Nubians were known to be expert archers. [31] More recent and broader studies have determined that the distinct pottery styles, differing burial practices, different grave goods, and site distribution all indicate that the Naqada people and the Nubian A-Group people were from different cultures. Kathryn Bard states that "Naqada cultural burials contain very few Nubian craft goods, which suggests that while Egyptian goods were exported to Nubia and were buried in A-Group graves, A-Group goods were of little interest further north." [32] There is no evidence that the pharaohs of the First Dynasty buried at Abydos were of Nubian origin. [33]

Early Kerma (3000–2400 BC) Edit

A uniform culture of nomadic herders, called the Gash group, existed from 3000 to 1500 BC to the east and west of Nubia. [15] : 8

In Lower Nubia, the A-group moved from the Classical to Terminal phase. At this time, kings at Qustul likely ruled all of Lower Nubia and demonstrated the political centralization of Nubian society. [15] : 21 The A-Group culture came to an end sometime between 3100 and 2900 BC, when it was apparently destroyed by the First Dynasty rulers of Egypt. [34] There are no records of settlement in Lower Nubia for the next 600 years. Old Kingdom Egyptian dynasties (4th to 6th) controlled uninhabited Lower Nubia and raided Upper Nubia.

Early Kerma C-Group (2400–1550 BC) Edit

Upper Nubia Edit

The pre-Kerma developed into the Middle phase Kerma group. Some A-group people (transitioning to C-group) settled the area and co-existed with the pre-Kerma group. [15] : 25 Like other Nubian groups, the two groups made an abundance of red pottery with black tops, though each group made different shapes. [15] : 29 Traces of the C-group in Upper Nubia vanish by 2000 BC and Kerma culture began to dominate Upper Nubia. [15] : 25 The power of an independent Upper Nubia increased around 1700 BC and Upper Nubia dominated Lower Nubia. [15] : 25 An Egyptian official, Harkhuf, mentions that Irtjet, Setjet, and Wawat all combined under a single ruler. By 1650 BC, Egyptian texts started to refer to only two kingdoms in Nubia: Kush and Shaat. [15] : 32,38 Kush was centered at Kerma and Shaat was centered on Sai island. [15] : 38 Bonnet posits that Kush actually ruled all of Upper Nubia, since "royal" graves were much larger in Kush than Shaat and Egyptian texts other than the Execration lists only refer to Kush (and not Shaat). [15] : 38–39

Lower Nubia Edit

C-group Nubians resettled Lower Nubia by 2400 BC. [15] : 25 As trade between Egypt and Nubia increased, so did wealth and stability. Nubia was divided into a series of small kingdoms. There is debate over whether the C-group people, [35] who flourished from 2500 BC to 1500 BC, were another internal evolution or invaders. O'Connor states "a transition from A group into a later culture, the C-group, can be traced" and the C-group culture was typical of Lower Nubia from 2400 to 1650 BC. [15] : 25 Although they lived in close proximity to each other, Nubians did not acculturate much to Egyptian culture. Notable exceptions include C-group Nubians during the 15th Dynasty, isolated Nubian communities in Egypt, and some bowmen communities. [15] : 56 C-Group pottery is characterized by all-over incised geometric lines with white infill and impressed imitations of basketry. Lower Nubia was controlled by Egypt from 2000 to 1700 BC and Upper Nubia from 1700 BC.

From 2200 to 1700 BC, the Pan Grave culture appeared in Lower Nubia. [14] : 20 Some of the people were likely the Medjay (mḏꜣ, [36] ) arriving from the desert east of the Nile river. One feature of Pan Grave culture was shallow grave burial. The Pan Grave and C-Group definitely interacted: Pan Grave pottery is characterized by more limited incised lines than the C-Group's and generally have interspersed undecorated spaces within the geometric schemes. [37]

Egypt in Nubia Edit

In 2300 BC, Nubia was first mentioned in Old Kingdom Egyptian accounts of trade missions. The Egyptians referred to Lower Nubia as Wawat, Irtjet, and Setju, while they referred to Upper Nubia as Yam. Some authors believe that Irtjet and Setju could also have been in Upper Nubia. [15] : 32 They referred to Nubians dwelling near the river as Nehasyu. [15] : 26 From Aswan, the southern limit of Egyptian control at the time, Egyptians imported gold, incense, ebony, copper, ivory, and exotic animals from tropical Africa through Nubia. Relations between the Egyptians and Nubians showed peaceful cultural interchange, cooperation, and mixed marriages. Nubian bowmen that settled at Gebelein during the First Intermediate Period married Egyptian women, buried Egyptian style, and eventually could not be distinguished from Egyptians. [15] : 56 Some Egyptian pharaohs may have had Nubian ancestry: [38] Mentuhotep II of the 11th Dynasty "was quite possibly of Nubian origin" and Amenemhet I, founder of the 12th Dynasty, "may have had a Nubian mother". [39] [40] [41] However, according to F. J. Yurco, "Egyptian rulers of Nubian ancestry had become Egyptians culturally as pharaohs, they exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and adopted typical Egyptian policies". [42]

After a period of withdrawal, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt conquered Lower Nubia from 2000 to 1700 BC. [15] : 8, 25 By 1900 BC, King Sesostris I began building a series of towns below the Second Cataract with heavy fortresses that had enclosures and drawbridges. [14] : 19 Sesotris III relentlessly expanded his kingdom into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) and erected massive river forts including Buhen, Semna, Shalfak and Toshka at Uronarti to gain more control over the trade routes in Lower Nubia. They also provided direct access to trade with Upper Nubia, which was independent and increasingly powerful during this time. These Egyptian garrisons seemed to peacefully coexist with the local Nubian people, though they did not interact much with them. [43]

Medjay was the name given by ancient Egypt to nomadic desert dwellers from east of the Nile river. The term was used variously to describe a location, the Medjay people, or their role/job in the kingdom. They became part of the Egyptian military as scouts and minor workers before being incorporated into the Egyptian army. [ citation needed ] In the army, the Medjay served as garrison troops in Egyptian fortifications in Nubia and patrolled the deserts as a kind of gendarmerie, [44] or elite paramilitary police force, [45] to prevent their fellow Medjay tribespeople from further attacking Egyptian assets in the region. [45] The Medjay were often used to protect valuable areas, especially royal and religious complexes. Although they are most notable for their protection of the royal palaces and tombs in Thebes and the surrounding areas, the Medjay were deployed throughout Upper and Lower Egypt they were even used during Kamose's campaign against the Hyksos and became instrumental in turning the Egyptian state into a military power. [46] [47] After the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, the Medjay district was no longer mentioned in written records. [48]

Kerma Egyptian Empire (1550–750 BC) Edit

Upper Nubia Edit

From the Middle Kerma phase, the first Nubian kingdom to unify much of the region arose. The Classic Kerma culture, named for its royal capital at Kerma, was one of the earliest urban centers in the Nile region and oldest city in Africa outside of Egypt. [49] [15] : 50–51 The Kerma group spoke either languages of the Cushitic branch [7] [8] or, according to more recent research, Nilo-Saharan languages of the Eastern Sudanic branch. [9] [10] [11] [12] Although somewhat similar, the Upper Nubia Kerma and Lower Nubia C-group were different.

By 1650 BC (Classic Kerma phase), the kings of Kerma were powerful enough to organize the labor for monumental town walls and large mud brick structures, such as the Eastern and Western Deffufas (50 by 25 by 18 meters). They also had rich tombs with possessions for the afterlife and large human sacrifices. George Andrew Reisner excavated sites at the royal city of Kerma and found distinctive Nubian architecture, such as large pebble covered tombs (90 meters in diameter), a large circular dwelling, and a palace-like structure. [15] : 41 Classic Kerma rulers employed "a good many Egyptians", according to the Egyptian Execration texts. [15] : 57

Kerma culture was militaristic, as attested by many archers' burials and bronze daggers/swords found in their graves. [15] : 31 Other signs of Nubia's military prowess are the frequent use of Nubians in Egypt's military and Egypt's need to construct numerous fortresses to defend their southern border from the Nubians. [15] : 31 Despite assimilation, the Nubian elite remained rebellious during Egyptian occupation. There were numerous rebellions and "military conflict occurred almost under every reign until the 20th dynasty". [50] : 102–103 At one point, Kerma came very close to conquering Egypt: Egypt suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Kingdom of Kush. [51] [52] According to Davies, head of the joint British Museum and Egyptian archaeological team, the attack was so devastating that, if the Kerma forces had chosen to stay and occupy Egypt, they might have permanently eliminated the Egyptians and brought the nation to extinction. During Egypt's Second Intermediate period, the Kushites reached the height of their Bronze Age power and completely controlled southern trade with Egypt. [15] : 41 They maintained diplomatic ties with the Thebans and Hyksos until the New Kingdom pharaohs brought all of Nubia under Egyptian rule from 1500 to 1070 BC. [15] : 41 After 1070 BC, there were continued hostilities with Egypt, which led Nubians to concentrate in Upper Nubia. [15] : 58 Within 200 years, a fully formed Kushite state, based at Napata, began to exert its influence on Upper (Southern) Egypt. [15] : 58–59

Lower Nubia Edit

When the Middle Kingdom Egyptians pulled out of the Napata region around 1700 BC, they left a lasting legacy that was merged with indigenous C-group customs. Egyptians remaining at the garrison towns started to merge with the C-group Nubians in Lower Nubia. The C-group quickly adopted Egyptian customs and culture, as attested by their graves, and lived together with the remaining Egyptians in garrison towns. [15] : 41 After Upper Nubia annexed Lower Nubia around 1700 BC, the Kingdom of Kush began to control the area. At this point, C-group Nubians and Egyptians began to proclaim their allegiance to the Kushite King in their inscriptions. [15] : 41 Egypt conquered Lower and Upper Nubia from 1500 to 1070 BC. However, the Kingdom of Kush survived longer than Egypt.

Egypt in Nubia Edit

After the Theban 17th Dynasty New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1532–1070 BC) expelled the Canaanite Hyksos from Egypt, they turned their imperial ambitions to Nubia. By the end of Thutmose I's reign (1520 BC), all of Lower Nubia had been annexed. After a long campaign, Egypt also conquered the Kingdom of Kerma in Upper Nubia and held both areas until 1070 BC. [50] : 101–102 [15] : 25 The Egyptian empire expanded into the Fourth Cataract, and a new administrative center was built at Napata, which became a gold and incense production area. [53] [54] Egypt became a prime source of gold in the Middle East. The primitive working conditions for the slaves are recorded by Diodorus Siculus. [55] One of the oldest maps known is of a gold mine in Nubia: the Turin Papyrus Map dating to about 1160 BC it is also one of the earliest characterized road maps in existence. [56]

Nubians were an integral part of New Kingdom Egyptian society. Some scholars state that Nubians were included in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt's royal family. [57] Ahmose-Nefertari, "arguably the most venerated woman in Egyptian history", [58] was thought by some scholars such as Flinders Petrie to be of Nubian origin because she is most often depicted with black skin. [38] [59] : 17 [60] The mummy of Ahmose-Nefertari's father, Seqenenre Tao, has been described as presenting "tightly curled, woolly hair", with "a slight build and strongly Nubian features". [61] Some modern scholars also believe that in some depictions, her skin color is indicative of her role as a goddess of resurrection, since black is both the color of the fertile land of Egypt and that of the underworld. [62] [63] : 90 [64] [58] [65] : 125

In 1098–1088 BC, Thebes was "the scene of a civil war-like conflict between the High Priest of Amun of Thebes Amenhotep and the Viceroy of Kush Panehesy (= the Nubian)". It was chaotic and many tombs were plundered. Instead of sending soldiers to restore order, Ramesses XI put Panehesy in control of that area's military and appointed him Director of Granaries. Panehesy stationed his troops in Thebes to protect the city from thieves, but it resembled a military occupation of Thebes to the High Priest, which later led to the Civil war in Thebes. [50] : 104–105 By 1082 BC, Ramesses XI finally sent help to the High Priest. Panehesy continued his revolt and the city of Thebes suffered from "war, famine, and plunderings". [50] : 106 Panehesy initially succeeded and the High Priest fled Thebes. Panehesy pursued the High Priest as far as Middle Egypt before Egyptian forces pushed Panehesy and his troops out of Egypt and into Lower Nubia. [50] : 106 Ramesses sent new leadership to Thebes: Herihor was named the new High Priest of Thebes (and effectively King of Southern Egypt) and Paiankh was named the new Viceroy of Kush. Paiankh recaptured former Egyptian holdings in Lower Nubia as far as the second Nile cataract, but could not defeat Panehesy in Lower Nubia, who ruled the area until his death. [50] : 106 Herihor's descendants became rulers of Egypt's 21st and 22nd Dynasties.

Napatan Empire (750–542 BC) Edit

There are competing theories on the origins of the Kushite kings of the 25th Dynasty: [66] some scholars believe they were Nubian officials that learned "state level organization" by administering Egyptian-held Nubia from 1500 to 1070 BC, [15] : 59 such as the rebel Viceroy of Kush, Panehesy, who ruled Upper Nubia and some of Lower Nubia after Egyptian forces withdrew. [50] : 110 Other scholars believe they are descended from families of the Egyptianized Nubian elite supported by Egyptian priests or settlers. [67] [68] [69] [70] Children of elite Nubian families were sent to be educated in Egypt then returned to Kush to be appointed in bureaucratic positions to ensure their loyalty. During the Egyptian occupation of Nubia, there were temple towns with Egyptian cults, but "production and redistribution" was based mostly on indigenous social structures. [50] : 111

The El Kurru chiefdom likely played a major role in the development of the Kingdom of Kush due to its access to gold producing areas, control of caravan routes, [50] : 112 more arable land, and participation in international trade. [50] : 121 "There can be no doubt that el-Kurru was the burial place of the ancestors of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty." [50] : 112 The early el-Kurru burials resemble Nubian Kerma/C-group traditions (contracted body, circular stone structures, burial on a bed). [50] : 121 However, by 880–815 BC, Nubian burials at el-Kurru became more Egyptian in style with "mastabas, or pyramid on mastabas, chapels, and rectangular enclosures". [50] : 117,121–122 Alara, the first el-Kurru prince, and his successor, Kashta, were buried at el-Kurru. [50] : 123 Later documents mention Alara as the 25th Dynasty's founder and "central to a myth of the origins of the kingdom". [50] : 124–126 Alara's sister was the priestess of Amun, which created a system of royal secession and an "ideology of royal power in which Kushite concepts and practice were united with contemporary Egyptian concepts of kingship". [50] : 144 Later, Kashta's daughter, the Kushite princess Amenirdis, was installed as God's Wife of Amun Elect and later Divine Adoratrice (effectively governor of Upper Egypt), which signaled the Kushite conquest of Egyptian territories. [50] : 148

The Napatan Empire ushered in the age of Egyptian archaism, or a return to a historical past, which was embodied by a concentrated effort at religious renewal and restoration of Egypt's holy places. [50] : 169 Piye expanded the Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkal [20] by adding "an immense colonnaded forecourt". [50] : 163–164 Shabaka restored the great Egyptian monuments and temples, "unlike his Libyan predecessors". [50] : 167–169 Taharqa enriched Thebes on a monumental scale." [50] At Karnak, the Sacred Lake structures, the kiosk in the first court, and the colonnades at the temple entrance are all built by Taharqa and Mentuemhet. In addition to architecture, the Kingdom of Kush was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture. [71] [72] [73] By 780 BC, Amun was the main god of Kush and "intense contacts with Thebes" were maintained. [50] : 144 Kush used the methods of Egyptian art and writing. [74] The Nubian elite adopted many Egyptian customs and gave their children Egyptian names. Although some Nubian customs and beliefs (e.g. burial practices) continued to be practiced, [50] : 111 Egyptianization dominated in ideas, practices, and iconography. [75] The cultural Egyptianization of Nubia was at its highest levels at the times of both Kashta and Piye. [76]

Nubia in Egypt Edit

Kashta peacefully became King of Upper and Lower Egypt with his daughter Amendiris as Divine Adoratrice of Amun in Thebes. [50] : 144–146 Rulers of the 23rd Dynasty withdrew from Thebes to Heracleopolis, which avoided conflict with the new Kushite rulers of Thebes. Under Kashta's reign, the Kushite elite and professional classes became significantly Egyptianized.

The city-state of Napata was the spiritual capital of Kush and it was from there that Piye (spelled Piankhi or Piankhy in older works) invaded and took control of Egypt. [78] Piye personally led the attack on Egypt and recorded his victory in a lengthy hieroglyphic filled stele called the "Stele of Victory". [50] : 166 Piye's success in achieving the double kingship after generations of Kushite planning resulted from "Kushite ambition, political skill, and the Theban decision to reunify Egypt in this particular way", and not Egypt's utter exhaustion, "as frequently suggested in Egyptological studies." [20] Due to archaism, Piye mostly used the royal titulary of Tuthmosis III, but changed the Horus name from "Strong bull appearing (crowned) in Thebes" to "Strong bull appearing in Napata" to announce that the Kushites had reversed history and conquered their former Thebaid Egyptian conquerors. [50] : 154 He also revived one of the greatest features of the Old and Middle Kingdoms: pyramid construction. As an energetic builder, he constructed the oldest known pyramid at the royal burial site of El-Kurru.

According to the revised chronology, Shebitku "brought the entire Nile Valley as far as the Delta under the empire of Kush and is 'reputed' to have had Bocchoris, dynast of Sais, burnt to death". [79] [50] : 166–167 Shabaka "transferred the capital to Memphis". [50] : 166 Shebitku's successor, Taharqa, was crowned in Memphis in 690 BC [50] [14] and ruled Upper and Lower Egypt as Pharaoh from Tanis in the Delta. [80] [79] Excavations at el-Kurru and studies of horse skeletons indicate the finest horses used in Kushite and Assyrian warfare were bred in and exported from Nubia. Horses and chariots were key to the Kushite war machine. [50] : 157–158

Taharqa's reign was a prosperous time in the empire with a particularly large Nile river flood and abundant crops and wine. [81] [50] Taharqa's inscriptions indicate that he gave large amounts of gold to the temple of Amun at Kawa. [82] His army undertook successful military campaigns, as attested by the "list of conquered Asiatic principalities" from the Mut temple at Karnak and "conquered peoples and countries (Libyans, Shasu nomads, Phoenicians?, Khor in Palestine)" from Sanam temple inscriptions. [50] László Török mentions the military success was due to Taharqa's efforts to strengthen the army through daily training in long-distance running and Assyria's preoccupation with Babylon and Elam. [50] Taharqa also built military settlements at the Semna and Buhen forts and the fortified site of Qasr Ibrim. [50]

Imperial ambitions of the Mesopotamian-based Assyrian Empire made war with the 25th Dynasty inevitable. Taharqa conspired with Levantine kingdoms against Assyria: [83] in 701 BC, Taharqa and his army aided Judah and King Hezekiah in withstanding a siege by King Sennacherib of the Assyrians (2 Kings 19:9 Isaiah 37:9). [84] There are various theories (Taharqa's army, [85] disease, divine intervention, Hezekiah's surrender, Herodotus' mice theory) as to why the Assyrians failed to take Jerusalem and withdrew to Assyria. [86] Sennacherib's annals record Judah was forced into tribute after the siege and Sennacherib became the ruler of the region [87] However, this is contradicted by Khor's frequent utilization of an Egyptian system of weights for trade and the twenty-year cessation in Assyria's pattern of repeatedly invading Khor (as Assyrians had before 701 and after Sennacherib's death). [88] [89] In 681 BC, Sennacherib was murdered by his own sons in Babylon.

In 679 BC, Sennacherib's successor, King Esarhaddon, campaigned in Khor, destroyed Sidon, and forced Tyre into tribute in 677–676 BC. Esarhaddon invaded Egypt proper in 674 BC, but according to Babylonian records, Taharqa and his army outright defeated the Assyrians. [90] In 672 BC, Taharqa brought reserve troops from Kush, as mentioned in rock inscriptions. [50] Taharqa's Egypt still had influence in Khor during this period as Tyre's King Ba'lu "put his trust upon his friend Taharqa". Further evidence was Ashkelon's alliance with Egypt and Esarhaddon's inscription asking "if the Kushite-Egyptian forces 'plan and strive to wage war in any way' and if the Egyptian forces will defeat Esarhaddon at Ashkelon". [91] However, Taharqa was defeated in Egypt in 671 BC when Esarhaddon conquered Northern Egypt, captured Memphis, and imposed tribute before withdrawing. [80] Pharaoh Taharqa escaped to the south, but Esarhaddon captured the Pharaoh's family, including "Prince Nes-Anhuret and the royal wives", [50] and sent them to Assyria. In 669 BC, Taharqa reoccupied Memphis and the Delta, and recommenced intrigues with the king of Tyre. [80] Esarhaddon led his army to Egypt again and, after his death in 668 BC, command passed to Ashurbanipal. Ashurbanipal and the Assyrians defeated Taharqa again and advanced as far south as Thebes, but direct Assyrian control was not established. [80] The rebellion was stopped and Ashurbanipal appointed Necho I, who had been king of the city Sais, as his vassal ruler in Egypt. Necho's son, Psamtik I, was educated at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh during Esarhaddon's reign. [ citation needed ] As late as 665 BC, the vassal rulers of Sais, Mendes, and Pelusium were still making overtures [a] to Taharqa in Kush. [50] The vassals' plot was uncovered by Ashurbanipal and all rebels but Necho of Sais were executed. [50]

Taharqa's successor, Tantamani, sailed north from Napata with a large army to Thebes, where he was "ritually installed as the king of Egypt". [50] : 185 From Thebes, Tantamani began his reconquest and regained control of Egypt as far north as Memphis. [50] : 185 [80] Tantamani's dream stele states that he restored order from the chaos, where royal temples and cults were not being maintained. [50] : 185 After conquering Sais and killing Assyria's vassal, Necho I, in Memphis, "some local dynasts formally surrendered, while others withdrew to their fortresses". [50] : 185

The Kushites had influence over their northern neighbors for nearly 100 years until they were repelled by the invading Assyrians. The Assyrians installed the native 26th Dynasty of Egypt under Psamtik I and they permanently forced the Kushites out of Egypt around 590 BC. [92] : 121–122 The heirs of the Kushite empire established their new capital at Napata, which was also sacked by the Egyptians in 592 BC. The Kushite kingdom survived for another 900 years after being pushed south to Meroë. The Egyptianized culture of Nubia grew increasingly Africanized after the fall of the 25th Dynasty until Queen Amanishakhete acceded in 45 BC. [ citation needed ] She temporarily arrested the loss of Egyptian culture, but then it continued unchecked. [76]


10. The Mayan Civilization

Period: 2600 B.C. – 900 A.D.
Original Location: Around present-day Yucatan
Current Location: Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico south through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras
Major Highlights: Complex understanding of astronomy

The Mayan presence in Central America is thousands of years old, but archaeologists like to pin the culture’s real beginnings on the Preclassic period. Around the year 1800 B.C. marked the moment that hunters and gatherers decided to settle down and build permanent homes.

The first villages were incredibly successful at farming and would go on to seed the Maya throughout their large territory.

The ancient Mayan Empire was filled with wonders — tall temples that almost touched the sky an unusual calendar that counted millions of years incredible astronomical understanding extensive record keeping.

Several cities had unique trademarks such as pyramids, grand tombs, and detailed hieroglyphs splashed over everything. The Maya reached artistic and intellectual heights never seen before in the New World, but despite these civilized achievements, the culture wasn’t all unicorns and rainbows — they loved the pass-time of human sacrifice, and unleashing warfare on their own people.

Inner conflict, drought, and their conquest by the Spanish in the 16th century all conspired to boot this stunning civilization straight off a metaphorical cliff.

The culture perished under the pressure to convert to Christianity and from the rampant spread of European diseases, but the Maya themselves never went completely extinct, as millions of their descendants exist across the world today and continue to speak several Mayan languages.


Archaeologists Find Hieroglyphics That Shed New Light on the Golden Age of the Meroitic Civilization - History

We have several dates for the Exodus. The Jewish Historian Flavius Josephus (70 AD) thaought the expulsion of the Hyksos by Pharaoh Ahmose I circa 1546 BC was the Israelite Exodus. 1446 BC is another Exodus date favored by some conservative scholars based on 1 Kings 6:1 statement that the Exodus occurred 480 years before Solomon built the Temple. Then some Liberal scholars favor an Exodus after 1260 BC in the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Why? Because the Exodus begins at the city of Ramesses, and Egyptologists understand Egyptian Per-Rameses came into existence about the time of Ramesses I and II. Two Egyptologists, Hoffmeier and Kitchen, have noted that the 480 years of 1 KIngs 6:1, is contradicted by the Bible’s internal timeline which comes to a time lapse of about 600 years instead of 480 years. 1446 BC plus 600 gives us 1546 BC and the Hyksos Expulsion from Egypt. Yet Hoffmeier and Kitchen ignore this and prefer an Exodus in the days of Ramesses II (circa 1260 BC). Can the Bibl help us? YES. We are told that after Moses’ death Joshua attacks Jericho and orders its fallen walls to be set afire. In the 1950’s Dame Kathleen Kenyon excavated Jericho. She noted its LAST WALLS had fallen due to an earth quake and had been set on fire. She dated the event to the Hyksos Expulsion from Egypt circa 1546 BC! BINGO! The Exodus is 1546 BC and the HYksos Expulsion is being remembered by the Bible. THE PROBLEM? Sites in Jordan (biblical Moab and Ammon and Edom) have been excavated and some did not come into existence until after 1200 BC, or Iron Age I (1200-1100 BC). Conclusion: The Bible is recalling real events, grounded in archaeological findings, and the evidence suggests that the Iron Age I settlement of Jordan and Canaan, 1200-1100 BC has been combined with the Hyksos Expulsion and destruction of Jericho in 1546 BC. The Bible says Israel married the Canaanite’s sons and daughters and came to worship their gods. Assuming the BIble to have been written in Iron Age II, evidently these peoples saw the Hyksos as their ancestors via marriages with Iron I Canaanites (Hyksos descendants).

Adão e Eva e o Jardim do Éden e Pecado Original, Moisés e o Êxodo (histórias de exilios e conquistas foram plagiadas), Dez Mandamentos, Abraão, Josué ou de qualquer dos juízes, Davi, Salomão e seu reino, NOÉ e o Dilúvio, NUNCA EXISTIRAM historicamente.
A BÍBLIA, conta relatos que não são históricos, são boatos, fábulas, MITOLOGIAS. Não existem textos autênticos e originais estão perdidos. Parem de que enganar e mentir para o mundo relatando como relatos ficcionais como se verdades fossem.
JESUS de Nazaré (deus ou filho de deus), José, Maria e os Apóstolos… as histórias da Criação e a Natividade, Crucificação, NÃO SÃO FATOS, são inverídicos e não são coerentes entre si (mortos não ressuscitam). NUNCA existiram.
Os Evangelhos são um labirinto escrito por autores anônimos e editores e revisores conflitantes.
Do Éden ao Apocalipse, A Bíblia é um registro dos erros e das maldades dos homens. As Escrituras “não são a palavra de Deus”nem inspiradas.
DEUSES NÃO EXISTEM .

In my opinion, the Bible is a good place to begin our inquiry, not to dispute its
history and theology with cut and paste archaelogical references. Also, the bottom line with Biblical history is that God is not only providential, but actively involved in human affairs. The Bible is a revelation of what God has done and will accomplish from creation until the end of the age. Do we think it possible that the God who created a trillion stars in a million gallaxies might actually be capable of parting the Red Sea to rescue His people? If we disgard the first verses of Genesis as a myth, all bets are off. If one is an agnositic or an atheist, the miracles of the Bible that changed human history are nonsense. To paraphrase King David in the Psalms, “In their heart, they say there is no God.” In other words, our final, final on the subject of God’s intervention in Biblical history is an issue of the heart, not of the intellect. Interpreting Biblical history and theology is a grand and rewarding challenge for scholars and archaelogists. Digging dirt in those ancient lands to refute the authenticity of the Bible is a fool’s pursuit.

Y’all need to stop pushing lies and tell the truth the real truth about Moses the real royal family of Kemet kings Ahmoses Ramoses Kamoses Thutmoses especially about Ahmoses chasing out the foreign invaders to regain the land liberation for his people from a bunch of culture vultures nomads stop lying to people about the misconception of lies a lot of people are awoke Israelites aka Hyksos it’s facts y’all need to stop lying to people examples of Hyksos Jacob aka Yaqubher Hykso also Hezekiah aka a Hykso on his seal they found he has a lot of Kemet Tameri symbols on it such as Sun of righteousness and a Ahnk on it stop embarrassing y’all selves entertaining lies

Thank you
Someone FINALLY said it

In my opinion the reliability of the Bible as source material with regard to historical research is undermined by the nonsense myths and legends contained in the Bible. For example ‘The Flood’ legend in Genesis 7 is borrowed from the Babylonian cuneiform text which is one thousand years older than the Biblical Hebrew text. Dr Irving Finkel in his book ‘THE ARK BEFORE NOAH Decoding the Story of the Flood’ ( published by Hodder & Stoughton, Great Britain, 2014, ISBN 978 1 444 75708 8 ) acknowledges the pioneering contribution by George Smith ( 1840 – 76 ) who, in 1872 ‘astounded the world by discovering the story of the Flood – much the same as that in the Book of Genesis – inscribed on a cuneiform tablet made of clay that had recently been excavated at far – distant Nineveh’ ( op cit, p,1 ). This find at Nineveh and the translation by George Smith that the Flood story was written on a clay tablet one thousand years before the Hebrews plagiarized the Flood story, begs the question ‘what else did the Hebrew chroniclers plagiarize to compile the history of the Hebrews and which ‘God’ are the Hebrews referring to in their texts?’

How would finding the universal flood story in other countries and languages discount the story? Would it not add to it’s veracity? If the flood in Noah’s day was indeed universal it stands to reason that there wouldn’t be only one people group that knows and retells the same story. Actually, cultures all over the world, far removed from the Middle East and isolated from all external influence, retell ancient flood stories similar to that in the Bible. Would these ethno-historical accounts of remote peoples, that may have been orally passed down from ancient times, disprove the Bible? Would we say they’ve also plagiarized the ancient Babylonian story? Does the Bible claim to be the only account of a universal flood? No, it only claims that the flood was universal and, as such, would have, at least initially, been universally known. We outsmart ourselves when we try to disprove biblical records simply because we don’t want to believe it. Shouldn’t we rather see that, since so many of the biblical accounts are accurate and verified, maybe the whole of it is true?

Well said, exactly what I would believe. As Noah’s family grew and repopulated the earth, the flood would of been passed down to the generations. Thanks Jon.

Even the Chinese have a character that represents the flood.

You obviously know nothing about Hebrew heritage or you would not make your comments.

OBVIOUSLY, Tina, you must know everything.

I read Israel Finkelstein’s book The Bible Unearthed where he presents some interesting evidence for arguing that the exodus and conquest did not happen. Who is the most prominent critic who is archaeologist who challenges his hypothesis

I just happened to see this Finkelstein on a TV show earlier this evening, entitled ‘Temple Mount,’ he doubts the efficacy of the Bibles account of Solomon’s temple, to me, after watching some of it, that he was ‘hell bent’ on trying to prove that that the Bible account of Solomon’s temple was a myth…..typical of some archaeologists ……after reading your statement, Noel, I can see how my thoughts did not go deep enough………he probably wants to discredit the entire Bible……….well I am sorry, he is in for a rather rude awakening.

There are something like 1500 years between the building of the Pyramids and the Hebrew presence in Egypt. Explain that.

Who would reasonably expect archaeological evidence of the various travels of nomads thousands of years ago through the sands of Sinai? I find the proofs on the realities of today. We know Israel was Canaanite, with the god EL forming part of its name. We know the god who became the God of Israel came form the South. Archaeology supports that. Those two groups, who saw themselves as kin, ie, the various “exodus” migrations bringing their god to Canaan and the existent tribes of Israel, became one, just as their gods became one. Who knows, maybe the “Shema” prayer attests to that merging of gods. North and South were historically at odds with each other. Provenances are clear. So it is in language, like the many ה ‘s added to names previously not containing them, such as Abram and Abraham, the h ( ה) being of southern provenance. So what’s the fuss, the denials, the politics, the insistence on ” accuracy” from the Bible – a book written by Hebrews for Hebrews as anything but perfect science in mind- , the dating feuds. Is there any doubt really that these migrations from Egypt, called the one Exodus compounding many stories, happened? Do the deniers have better explanations for the simplest of facts proving the composition of what was to become Israel post-Canaan?

You should go to the ‘British Museum’ in London, it is truly amazing………with the right guide you can walk through Bible history…..you look at a particular artefact, go to the appropriate Bible chapter and verses, read about it…..and there it is in front of your eyes……..you can do this through the various sections of the museum, representing Biblical Empires, e.g. Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome.
It really does make the Bible ‘come to life’
If you ever have that chance Gisel, I recommend it………you would certainly learn something. The God of the Israelites, Jehovah, was well known to the Israelites before their enslavement in Egypt………Moses had to remind the Israelites, about their God after 215 years bondage to the Egyptians, their release from captivity, and that is certainly well documented in in the Bible book of Exodus. (there was only ONE Exodus)
And, the Bible is not just a book for Hebrews, it is a book for all mankind…….that is why it has existed for so long…….even after many attempts, throughout history, to destroy it , or prevent it from being published into hundreds of different languages, it is still a ‘best seller’

Thankyou Chris & Carl for your faith. And I completely agree. I too believe.

I have always worried about Noah’s arch… good grief. There is good evidence for Israel in Egypt and for Israel leaving Egypt. Comparing archaeological information and Scripture it seems that Senusret III [also known as Sesostris III> was Pharaoh when Joseph, son of Jacob was taken to Egypt. The key is that there is more evidence for the resurrection of Jesus Christ than for any other personal event in ancient history.

Noah’s Arch? Really? Paul there’s more to worry about…like knowing the basics and spelling.

I wholeheartedly agree with all of Chris’s comments of Feb 2015. Chris, your comments are profound but come from the humble heart TRUE believer. You should start your own blog / Q & A to aid bible students come to the truth. You would lead many to Jesus Christ Who is God in human form.

Thanks for the comment Chris (2/14/15:20:43). My feelings and thoughts exactly. ‘Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God’ AMEN, and AMEN. And remember also: “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not unto your own understanding and He will direct your paths” … Again, AMEN and AMEN.

Ronald says “I think….” But he simply doesn’t think.

Did all the “comments” dry up because the people who offered their stupid opinions have now actually read the Hebrew Bible AND Dr. I Velikovsky’s “Ages in Chaos” which clearly explains the proof of the Exodus and the 10 Plagues. Without this book, they are simply writing opinions based on nothing at all.
I look forward to reading from someone who has actually read the facts, the scientific and other proof of the accuracy of the Hebrew Bible and the dating related to Egypt. (See above).

i don’t think any of this is true

Chris says the best! Amen brother!

I don’t think that there were any slaves. Ancient Egypt was a metaphysics capital of the world. Moses stole the Ark of the covenant in my opinion. The only way to recharge the Ark was in the Giza pyramid. .. why steal something that you can not use? God’s energy is shown in the form of the winged disc or solar disc that is actually Antihydrogen fusion wrapped in antihelium antioxygen that created the universe. This is also seen in the book of coming to light. .. Dark matter producing dark energy creates gravity and mass while living in the quantum field or aether shown in their art. My theory is backed up by NASA’S Fermi satellite And Italian space agency satellite PAMELA detected antihelium a signature of Dark matter during Sprite production. It looks like the sun but is double ringed flying disc made by lightning hitting hydrogen in a weightless environment of space. It created the universe.

@ KURT THAT SAME PROCESS OF MAKING BRICKS IS STILL USED IN PART OF JUDIAH TODAY (AFRICA)

For Don and others taken in by the “Yam Suf means Sea of Reeds and therefore just means such-and-such lake” argument: this argument doesn’t take into account that during the time of King Solomon, the Bible calls the sea at Elat “Yam Suf” as well, and in that case, there is no question it is speaking of what we call the Red Sea.

What evidence is there that bricks were made in ancient Egypt?
The Bible book of Exodus states that the Egyptians put their Hebrew slaves to work making bricks. The slaves had to make a prescribed number each day, using clay mortar and straw.—Exodus 1:14 “They made their life bitter with hard labor, as they worked with clay mortar and bricks and in every form of slavery in the field. Yes, they made them toil in harsh conditions in every form of slavery.”-Exodus 5:10-14.”So the taskmasters and their foremen went out and said to the people: “Here is what Pharʹaoh has said, ‘I am giving you no more straw. Go and get your own straw for yourselves wherever you can find it, but your work will not be reduced at all.’” Then the people scattered throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. And the taskmasters kept urging them: “You must each finish your work every day, just as when straw was provided.” Also the foremen of the Israelites, whom Pharʹaoh’s taskmasters had appointed over them, were beaten.They asked them: “Why did you not reach the quota of bricks that you used to make? It happened both yesterday and today.”http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2012010
The making of sun-dried bricks was an important occupation in the Nile Valley in Bible times. Ancient monuments built from this material still stand in Egypt. A wall painting in the 15th-century B.C.E. tomb of Rekhmire in Thebes, almost contemporary with the events recounted in the book of Exodus, illustrates the process.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia describes the scene in this painting as follows: “Water is brought from a pool mud is mixed with a hoe and then carried to a spot convenient for the brickmaker. This mud is pressed into a wooden mold which the brickmaker holds to the ground. The mold is then lifted off, leaving a newly shaped brick to dry in the sun. Rows and rows of bricks are molded and, when dry, stacked preparatory to use. This procedure is still followed in the Near East.”
Different papyrus documents from the second millennium B.C.E. also refer to the making of bricks by serfs, to the use of straw and brick-clay, and to the daily production quota of bricks that workers had to meet.
Detail of wall painting in tomb of Rekhmire Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY
http://www.academia.edu/2118834/Out_of_Egypt

Correction Moses was not a Judite. He was from the tribe of Levi.

After you have read Velikovsky you can THEN discuss the subject of Jewish history.

The first new Pharaoh of Egypt after the overthrow of the Amu/Amalekites/Hyksos was the native short-lived 17th dynasty followed by the 18th. “The Great Queen of Egypt and the South” otherwise known as Hatshepsut was the queen “Sheba” who visited King Solomon of Israel and bore him a son. On her return to Africa she made him viceroy of Ethiopia and gave him and his heirs a title carried down the dynasty as “The Lion of Judah” until Emperor Haile Selassie was assassinated in our life-time.
Instead of writing “Comments” about which several of you obviously know nothing, try reading Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky’s book “AGES IN CHAOS”. It opened my eyes and opened History.

The Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus was Pharaoh Thom, the last of the 12th Egyptian Dynasty (apart from a son who died immediately after Thom drowned.) From then on there were the Hyksos/Amu/Amalekite dynasties 13,14,15 and 16th Dynasties. That lasted until King Saul defeated them completely at the battle of Avaris, their capital. Read about it in the Hebrew Book of Samuel.

BHD claims (without the slightest evidence) that the Hyksos and the Israelites worked together. Other commentators make similar stupid assertions. The Hebrew Bible tells us clearly that the Israelites heading EAST or SOUTH EAST were attacked by the Hyksos heading WEST Into Egypt after Egypt had been totally destroyed in what we call the Ten Plagues. Moreover the Egyptian people at all levels had been decimated as their stone buildings collapsed on them. Further, their army and pharaoh
had been drowned at the Reed Sea so the Land of Egypt was wide open and, as we are told in the Bible, there was no resistance.
Will those commentators expressing their own wishful views rather than facts, please read Dr Immanuel Velikovsky’s “Ages in Chaos” which explains HOW it all happened. No need for ignorant hypotheses anymore. Or even so-called learned ones!

As written in Judges 11:26 The Israelites were 300 years in the Trans Jordan. The Israelites were part of the Hyksos at Avaris, see Bietak Expedition Reports, from the time of Joseph vizier of the Hyksos, Genesis 41:33-39. The 5 conspirators who had conspired to kill then sold Joseph into slavery, Genesis 37::18-28 were given land at Goshen near the future city Pi-Ramesses Genesis 47:2-6. This was about 1620 BC.
The conspirators were the pastoral Judahites. Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Levi and Gad..
The Israelites who lived at Avaris were expelled by King Ahmose along with the Hyksos about 1535 BC and there was a pursuit. This Exodus was one of Haste This episode is described by Ebana at his tomb site.. The Israelites fled into Canaan along the way passing the Sea of Reeds probably Lake Ballah, See the Haggadah P.106 Seif Edition. The Israelites found themselves in the Trans Jordan. They may have made a brief foray back into Canaan about 1447 BC while Thutmose III was attacking the Amorites. The Israelites entered Canaan about 1230 led by Joshua the Ephraimite
a Josephite. The Judahites remained on their land at Goshen until the advent of Moses the Judahite who returned from Midian after the death of Ramesses Ii in 1213 BC Exodus 2:23. The Judahites were conscripted to provide labour for the building of Pi-Ramesses, the city of Ramesses Exodus 1:11. The Exodus of the Judahites was burdened with herds of Cattle and flocks of sheep Exodus 12:32, it was a leisurely affair. Moses had just returned from Midian and would have taken the Judahites by the shortest route back to Midian Exodus 2:15. There is no Egyptian record of any pursuit or disaster at the time of this Exodus. The Judahites entered Canaan from the south as described in Judges 1:3 forty years after leaving Egypt probably led by Caleb the Judahite, after 1170 BC. At least 60 years after the eastern entry of the Israelites into Canaan led by Joshua the Josephite.
The First Exodus was one of haste pursued by King Ahmose. The Second Exodus was a leisurely affair. King Merneptah was not at Pi-Ramesses at the time of the departure of the Judahites he had moved to a palace at Memphis, see Univ. of Penn. Museum exhibit.

In my life as I have walked holding hands with Elohim _ I have learned that He purposely keeps to Himself proofs of His accounts. In doing so He challenges us to believe in this case, regardless the apparent lack of archaeological evidence. The knowledge belongs to Him and He reveals His knowledge as needed for us to exercise our faith in Him in a manner that help us to grow as believers. Deuteronomy 29:29 states “The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but those things which are revealed belong to us (…)”.
The real believer is that who doesn’t need any proof but His word. He gives us crumbs of knowledge, not too much that we become lazy in our faith and not too little that we get discouraged for the lack of it. This dynamic is compatible with The Lord’s character He gave us free will so we can choose to believe or choose not to, He doesn’t force us, however as Jesus said to Thomas: “Because you have seen me, you have believed blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”
I believe.

Dr Rohl learned about the errors in dating Egyptian history from Prof. Immanuel Velikovsky’s book “Ages in Chaos”. When the dates are corrected all the Bible falls into place. There is no “myth”. To understand, get hold of the book FIRST.
Mervyn

I have been excited about the work of Egyptologist Dr. David Rohl and look forward to his new book “Exodus – Myth or History”. Dr. Rohl found the timeline for Egyptian history was out of sync with the actual archeological facts. If you place the new timeline over the known dates for the conquest of Canaan then even the fall of Jericho now falls into place.

ALL the info. on the Exodus is in the Bible. There were 2 Exoduses, one at the time of the Hyksos expulsion from Avaris in Egypt about 1535 BC of the Josephite tribes the second of the Judahite tribes after the death of Ramesses II in 1213 BC. The First Exodus lead to the Israelites being in the Trans Jordan for 300 years, Judges 11:36 until lead out by Joshua the Ephraimite (a Josephite) into Canaan. This Exodus was one of haste pursued by King Ahmose and there is a record of this ! The Second Exodus of the Judahite tribes after the death Of Ramesses II (Exodus 2:23) when Moses the Judahite lead the Judahite tribes out from Goshen near the City of Ramesses to Midian. in Arabia. This was a slow Exodus because the pastoral Judahites were burdened with their flocks of sheep and herds of cattle (Genesis 47:32). Moses would have taken the direct route to Midian via the ancient Trade route having only recently returned from Midian (Exodus 4:19-20).
The reason for the separaration of Josephites based at Avaris and Judahites at Goshen in Egypt stemmed from the five conspirators (Genesis 47:2) the half brothers of Joseph who had conspired to kill Joseph and then sold him into slavery at Avaris where he became vizier and was able to settle the brother and half brothers who had not conspired against him. The story is all there in the Bible, today partly obscured but still present- two Exoduses not one.
Archaeology in Amenhotep III mention of the Shasu YHW the wanderers of YHW and the Ishrael base perhaps from the time of Thutmose III indicate the presence of Israelites outside Egypt long before the time of Moses and Ramesses II

Really, this is it for the comments?! Ok, so everyone needs to see http://www.patternsofevidence.com/en and see the proof. Yes Finkelstein is in it! There is not only archeological proof, but also textural proof in the hand of an Egyptian. Much of the proof is coming from UNDER the land called Rameses, a whole layer of another culture, clearly not Egyptian. One of the most outstanding points to me was that Moses wrote Genesis around 1500, a few hundred years BEFORE the Pharaoh Rameses, so likely someone updated the city name later to something more modern, that could be traced, at that time. Again, it is now UNDER that updated location that they are finding masses of evidence! So people have been looking for proof in Egyptian records in the wrong time period, kind of like searching for records of some Americans having African slaves during this 21st century not finding those records in this century doesn’t mean it didn’t happen, it means one was looking, in the right place, but at the wrong time!

And as for Noah’s ARK, it was found in the 1950’s, verified through much scientific evidence including a core sample from near the base producing petrified animal dung, hair, and antler. It is exactly the right size according to the Egyptian cubit, can be seen on Google Earth, and has had a visitor center set up for over 20 years now in Turkey.

I personally think that The Exodus was rather like Noah’s Arch in a way.

It is clear from serious scientific work that this “exodus” never happened. And for a good reason. Hebrew bedouins were taken to PERSIA as slaves. That is a historical fact, that is also confirmed in the famous “name” Messiah,which is actually PERSIAN “me shah” and it means “our king”.

But, hey. Science also tells us that believing in supernatural “friends” is clinical schizophrenia.

I have research this back and forward and found most writer’s are stating their opinion by adding a hypothesis to the very few facts to back up. if people study Egyptian history they keep real good records of certain things. This would have been very important and records would have been keep

It seems that much money and ado is spent in the pursuit of opinion. Such opinion has to differ from existing opinion so that a name can be made for ones self. Thus an opinion turns to a hypothesis and a hypothesis to fact in the writer and readers mind. There is only one simple fact, the desires for money, and that desire drives the most rediculous speculations to paper.
To often your authors state what the Bible says, but it is obvious they have not read it for what they state is wrong.
To often speculations of a adle minded ditch digger are treated as archilogical fact. May the readers of this e-book beware, it is about as accurate a story as Russel Crowes Noah!

Yam Suf the sea of reeds. is Lake Manzillah in the Delta that until they built the Aswan dam flowed into the Mediterranean. If you look at maps of the Delta prior to 1970 AD, you will see a gap in this long shore drift., In normal times the lake just trickles over sand bar into the Med, but during the inundation it blasts it’s way through creating this gap . and each year that gap moves up and down that long shore drift as can be seen by Napoleon’s maps. However when the Med Tide is out the, but not during the inundation time, waters from the lake will perculate through the sand bar leaving a 6-8ft dry area that can be walked over dry shod bu only for about 3 hours over aprrox a 4km stretch. When the Med Tide rises, the waters in the lake back up and the sand bar is covered by about 100mm of water. However if you’re running through this to the other side and you must be able to see the other side, then if yo fall you can get up . But a chariot doesn’t know this and the last thing the Egyptians wanted was to go into a small hole and the foot soldiers of Israel will come back and kill them ,so it doesn’t look like they followed them. This was the rooute the Egyptians as used then and now in taking a short cut from Port Said to Damieitta., Whereas by road you have to go back almost to Cairo . This tide happened twice a day for thousands of years. Which means Moses didn’t arrive there when the Med Tide was out but must have known about it and can be possible confirmed as being thee before from the Anastasia V papyrus. There is no mention of a Red sea in the Torah, the first referance to this sea was in the Christian Bible. Besides you have to have reeds to make their new abodes at Succoth and you don’t get reeds around salt water of the Red Sea. So where does the Bible get Red Sea from . May I suggest Moses named it Yam Edom the Edomite sea . It got changed to red because Red in Hebrew is Adom and there’s other references, like Karan and Keren where the translators got confused with there E’s an A’s as in Hebrew they’re similar . The Edomites were the people that lived near Elat and Accaba, which Moses passed through and they were seafarers .
There is now no need for that gap ,so the Egyptians have built a road and houses, where I say Moses once trod. I should add that I believe Exodus and Genesis to be an accurate history of the Jews. It wasn’t God who slowed up the Egyptains. by removing their chariot wheels, it was Moses the stratigist, who sent Joshua and Caleb to remove the axle pins the night before . any questions ask [email protected]

Johnna, surprisingly enough there is quite a lot of evidence for the Exodus. You should look up Thutmoses III and that story and research his history. Not to mention the findings of the Golden Chariot wheels under the Red Sea and Settlement evidence in the desert. I hope this helps.

There is not any evidence of Isreals Exodus except for one place if it can be found. This is a living prophecy of today. We are not meant to find proof as when we are taken out of the world there will be no proof of the event. the only place there may possibly be evidence is where the ground opened and swallowed the one who stole and buried the silver under his tent and the ground opened and took his whole family and livestock. Good luck finding it. No other remains are there as they most likely resurrected with Jesus along with the others who came out of their graves when Jesus resurrected. That is my opinion. blessings.

Have you people read “The Bible Unearthed” by Israel Finkelstein ?

The ancient Egyptian word Habiru means “wild ones.” The ancient Hebrew word for Passover mitzrayim means “overcome your limitations to no longer be a slave.” Prophetic teachings are similar across the world in many diverse traditions. We are all God’s children. We all will die and be reborn at home among the stars.