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10 April 1945
The British 2nd Army crosses the Leine and cuts the road between Hamburg and Hanover
US 3rd Army captures Weimar
US 7th Army reaches Schweinfurt
US 9th Army captures Essen and reaches the Elbe
5th Army captures Massa and Carrara
Kamikaze pilots attack US shipping at Okinawa
Soviet-Yugoslav pact is signed
This day in history, April 11: American soldiers liberate Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald in Germany
Today is Sunday, April 11, the 101st day of 2021. There are 264 days left in the year.
Today’s Highlight in History:
On April 11, 1945, during World War II, American soldiers liberated the Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald in Germany.
In 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated as Emperor of the French and was banished to the island of Elba. (Napoleon later escaped from Elba and returned to power in March 1815, until his downfall in the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815.)
In 1865, President Abraham Lincoln spoke to a crowd outside the White House, saying, “We meet this evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart.” (It was the last public address Lincoln would deliver.)
In 1899, the treaty ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect.
In 1921, Iowa became the first state to impose a cigarette tax, at 2 cents a package.
In 1947, Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers played in an exhibition against the New York Yankees at Ebbets Field, four days before his regular-season debut that broke baseball’s color line. (The Dodgers won, 14-6.)
In 1953, Oveta Culp Hobby became the first Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare.
In 1961, former SS officer Adolf Eichmann went on trial in Israel, charged with crimes against humanity for his role in the Nazi Holocaust. (Eichmann was convicted and executed.)
In 1965, dozens of tornadoes raked six Midwestern states on Palm Sunday, killing 271 people.
In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which included the Fair Housing Act, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1970, Apollo 13, with astronauts James A. Lovell, Fred W. Haise and Jack Swigert, blasted off on its ill-fated mission to the moon. (The mission was aborted when an oxygen tank exploded April 13. The crew splashed down safely four days after the explosion.)
In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
In 1996, 7-year-old Jessica Dubroff, who hoped to become the youngest person to fly cross-country, was killed along with her father and flight instructor when their plane crashed after takeoff from Cheyenne, Wyoming.
Ten years ago: A bloody, four-month standoff in the West African nation of Ivory Coast ended when troops loyal to the elected president, Alassane Ouattara (ah-lah-SAHN’ WAH’-tah-rah), routed and captured his rival, Laurent Gbagbo (loh-RAHN’ BAHG’-boh), the longtime strongman who’d lost the vote but refused to give up power. A subway bombing in Minsk, Belarus, claimed 15 lives.
Five years ago: Secretary of State John Kerry visited the memorial to Hiroshima’s atomic bombing, delivering a message of peace and hope for a nuclear-free world.
One year ago: The number of U.S. deaths from the coronavirus eclipsed Italy’s for the highest in the world, topping 20,000. On the day before Easter, the Kansas Supreme Court allowed an executive order from Democratic Gov. Laura Kelly to remain in effect it banned religious and funeral services of more than 10 people during the pandemic. A federal judge in Kentucky ruled that the city of Louisville could not halt a church’s drive-in service planned for Easter. Saturday Night Live made its return on NBC after being sidelined for more than a month by the coronavirus the all-quarantine version, hosted by coronavirus survivor Tom Hanks, featured stars delivering taped material from their homes.
Today’s birthdays: Ethel Kennedy is 93. Actor Joel Grey is 89. Actor Louise Lasser is 82. Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Ellen Goodman is 80. Movie writer-director John Milius is 77. Actor Peter Riegert is 74. Movie director Carl Franklin is 72. Actor Bill Irwin is 71. Country singer-songwriter Jim Lauderdale is 64. Songwriter-producer Daryl Simmons is 64. Rock musician Nigel Pulsford is 60. Actor Lucky Vanous is 60. Country singer Steve Azar is 57. Singer Lisa Stansfield is 55. Actor Johnny Messner is 52. Rock musician Dylan Keefe (Marcy Playground) is 51. Actor Vicellous (vy-SAY’-luhs) Shannon is 50. Rapper David Banner is 47. Actor Tricia Helfer is 47. Rock musician Chris Gaylor (The All-American Rejects) is 42. Actor Kelli Garner is 37. Singer Joss Stone is 34. Actor-dancer Kaitlyn Jenkins is 29.
Journalism, it’s often said, is the first-draft of history. Check back each day for what’s new … and old.
Liberation of Buchenwald, April 11, 1945, 3:15 p.m.
Abe tries to convince the officers that he is well enough to work, and he is transferred to Ohrdruf. His gangrene-infected foot makes it obvious that he cannot work. The Nazis put him in a barrack for those considered too sick to be worth medical attention. They are there to die. There is only straw on the floor to sleep on. He convinces an officer that he is well enough to be medically treated and is transferred to an infirmary. He then is sent back to Buchenwald.
Abe is soon too sick to leave his bunk except to go to the bathroom. But soon he gets an unexpected surprise. He hears singing outside his barracks. When the huge barracks doors swing open, Nazi officers are marched in, bound in rope. They are followed by singing prisoners who are poking them with the Nazis’ own rifles and bayonets. The former prisoners are followed by American soldiers, who stand there like giants in their camouflage uniforms and net-covered helmets. The prisoners at Buchenwald are finally liberated!
The illustration shows the clock in the Buchenwald watchtower is still set at 3:15, when the prisoners were liberated on April 11, 1945. The clock is still set at 3:15 today.
Abe is placed in a hospital, formerly reserved for Nazi officers. The doctors almost have to amputate his foot, but it soon heals and Abe is released. Abe goes on to tell how he and several other survivors live together in Germany, rebuilding their lives. They become fast friends. Abe, of course, goes right back to work and to school, while most survivors are intent on having fun and enjoying life for a while.
Abe meets Ellie Mueller, a German Lutheran, and falls in love. He struggles with his love for her, because Abe had been raised in ultra-orthodox Jewish tradition. He finally decides that he deserves some happiness and he asks Ellie to marry him, with the conditions that she convert to Judaism, that they raise their children in the Jewish tradition, and that they leave Germany.
She eventually agrees and they decide to emigrate to America. Abe’s story ends when he is getting off the train in Augusta, Georgia, the home of his sponsors. Ellie follows a year later. His son, Joseph, tells of their remarkable success in Augusta, where they proudly raised their family in the Jewish tradition.
USS Missouri BB-63 - Chronological Account of Action - 11 April 1945
Overcast skies with light occasional rain ending in mid morning. Light rain again at 1300, after which clouds became broken to scattered. Ceiling 1500 feet, 2500 in afternoon, occasionally unlimited. Visibility 6 to 8 miles becoming better, to 10 miles. Surface wind north-northwesterly 22 to 24 knots. Slight seas. Flying conditions average. Sunrise 0602, sunset 1841.
0145 Intercepted enemy radar signals on 152 megacycles
0400 Radar contact with TG [Task Group] 58.3 bearing 310 degree T, distance 32 miles.
0551 Secured from dawn alert, set condition of readiness III.
0709 Formed cruising formation
1110 Picked up bogey bearing 080 degrees T, distance 7 miles. Set condition I in AA [Anti-Aircraft] batteries. Bogey turned away began opening up to Northeast.
1125 INTREPID [CV-11 Essex-class carrier] CAP [Combat Air Patrol] plane splashed bogey, a Kate [Nakajima B5N carrier born attack bomber].
1322 Bogey picked up at 090 degrees T, distance 24 miles. Took control of YORKTOWN [CV-5 Essex-class carrier] CAP plane for interception.
1336 Picked up Raid 4 bearing 345 degrees T, distance 58 miles.
1342 Formed cruising dispositions 5VC [A defensive cruising formation for repelling air attacks]
1350 Several groups of bogies reported closing from the northwest.
1410 Intercepted enemy radar signals on 180 megacycles
1425 Raids 4 to 13 disappeared or were splashed by CAP.
1440 Intercepted reports of 13 bogies splashed by CAP up to that time. Three or more bandits were now closing this formation very quickly.
1442 Commences firing on a low flying Zeke coming directly in on starboard quarter, bearing 150 degrees T, distance 7,000 yards [approx. 4 miles], altitude 100 feet.
1443 Zeke [Mitsubishi A6M Zero] crashed ship at frame 169 starboard about 3 feet below main deck level. The ship was sprayed with parts of the plane, and the plane’s starboard wing was thrown forward to the first superstructure [01 level just aft of the Surrender Deck] frame 102, inboard of “5 mount #3. A gasoline fire resulted at this point. The mutilated body of the pilot landed on after main deck.
1446 Fires were reported under control. No casualties, damage only superficial caused by fire. Minor damage to 40mm quad #17 and bulwark area.
1446 Commenced firing at second plane bearing 120 degrees T [believed to have been piloted by Ishii].
1447 Ceased firing, plane splashed.
1500 – 1630 During this period only 1 bandit showing on screen, Raid 16, to Southwest being chased by YORKTOWN VF. Raids 14, 15, and 18 were friendly. Bogey Raid 17 was picked up at 090 degrees T, distance 45 miles.
1635 Lost Raid 16 over TG 58.3.
1640 Raid 17 identified as PDM [US Navy Patrol bomber “flying boat”].
1645 Screen clear of bogies.
1710 Raid 19 splashed by TG 58.3, I Jill [Nakajima B6N carrier borne attack bomber]
1720 Picked up Raid 18 bearing 08 degrees T, distance 105 miles.
1724 Secured from Air Defense set condition I in AA batteries.
1746 CAP splashed Raid 18, a Betty, bearing 130 degrees T, distance 38 miles.
1825 Picked up Raid 20, 4 to 6 planes, bearing 130 degrees T, distance 62 miles.
1834 Formed in cruising formation 5V.
1839 CAP splashed 2 Bettys of Raid 20 on bearing 125 degrees T, distance 34 miles.
1848 One Betty broke away from 20, now designated Raid 22
1854 Another Betty of Raid 20 splashed by CAP. Raid 22 now at 095 degrees T, distance 50 miles.
1905 Numerous bogies reported approaching, sounded “Air Defense”.
1907 Opened fire on twin-engine bandit 12,000 yards astern of ship. Distance did not decrease.
1910 Raid 23 closing from Southwest.
1915 Intercepted enemy radar signals.
1937 Flares being dropped by enemy planes.
2000 Bogies, 8 – 10, to west and northeast of formation, circling at 20 to 40 miles.
2030 Secured “Air Defense” set condition 1 in AA batteries.
2035 All but 1 or 2 bogies clear of screen.
2040 Set condition of readiness III throughout the ship.
2045 One bogey present to eastward on northerly course.
2050 Bogey at 074 degrees T, distance 47 miles, course 350 degrees T, speed 150.
2251 Raid 28, picked up and tracked, distance 70 miles, closing on course 205 degrees T.
2316 Alerted anti-aircraft battery. Raid 31 picked up at 045 degrees T, distance 26 miles.
2318 Raid 28 closing formation bearing 270 degrees T.
2327 Commenced firing on Raid 28 bearing 245 degrees T, distance 11,000 yards, altitude 7,500 feet.
2329 Ceased firing, splashed 1 bandit, probably twin engine, on bearing 235 degrees T, distance 10,000 yards.
2330 Set condition 1 in AA batteries.
2335 Raid 31 faded at 060 degrees T, distance 30 miles.
2340 Raid 29 bearing 045 degrees distance 26 miles.
2345 Set condition of readiness III throughout the ship.
Ammunition expended: 398 projectiles 5”/38, 421 cartridges 40mm, 680 cartridges 20mm
Kamikaze strike on USS Missouri, April 11, 1945, during the Battle of Okinawa.
Farmington, CT – April 11, 1945
On April 11, 1945, a U.S. Army P-47D (42-22360) left Bradley Filed in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, for a combat training flight, and crashed during flight maneuvers while over the town of Farmington. According to witnesses, the aircraft plunged strait down into a swampy/wooded area on a farm where it exploded, leaving a crater reported to be 12 to 15 feet deep, and 30 feet wide. One source identifies the farm as belonging to John Lipski, and another as belonging to Leo Grouten. Apparently the two properties border each other and the crash occurred near the property line.
The pilot was identified as 2nd Lt. Vincent Hugh Core, 20, of Brooklyn, New York.
In 1987, 41 years after the crash, David Tabol, a Farmington Boy Scout, erected a granite monument near the crash site as a memorial to Lt. Core. (The site is now part of the Unionville State Forrest.) Further back in the woods is a crude piles of rocks, which some believe was left by the military clean-up crew to serve as a marker for the site.
The Bristol Press, “Pilot Killed, Plane Blown To Pieces In Crash In Farmington”, April 11, 1945, pg. 1
The Bristol Press, ” Army Investigating Crash Of Plane In Farmington Brooklyn Flier Is Killed”, April 12, 1945
The Bristol Press,”WWII Tragedy, Air Force Pilot Crashes, Dies In Unionville Forest In 1945″, by Ken Lipshez, October, 1995.
11 April 1945 - History
Washington, March 24 - The text of the agreements reached at the Crimea (Yalta) Conference between
, as released by the State Department today, follows:
PROTOCOL OF PROCEEDINGS OF CRIMEA CONFERENCE
The Crimea Conference of the heads of the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which took place from Feb. 4 to 11, came to the following conclusions:
I. WORLD ORGANIZATION
1. That a United Nations conference on the proposed world organization should be summoned for Wednesday, 25 April, 1945, and should be held in the United States of America.
2. The nations to be invited to this conference should be:
(a) the United Nations as they existed on 8 Feb., 1945 and
(b) Such of the Associated Nations as have declared war on the common enemy by 1 March, 1945. (For this purpose, by the term "Associated Nations" was meant the eight Associated Nations and Turkey.) When the conference on world organization is held, the delegates of the United Kingdom and United State of America will support a proposal to admit to original membership two Soviet Socialist Republics, i.e., the Ukraine and White Russia.
3. That the United States Government, on behalf of the three powers, should consult the Government of China and the French Provisional Government in regard to decisions taken at the present conference concerning the proposed world organization.
4. That the text of the invitation to be issued to all the nations which would take part in the United Nations conference should be as follows:
"The Government of the United States of America, on behalf of itself and of the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics and the Republic of China and of the Provisional Government of the French Republic invite the Government of -------- to send representatives to a conference to be held on 25 April, 1945, or soon thereafter , at San Francisco, in the United States of America, to prepare a charter for a general international organization for the maintenance of international peace and security.
"The above-named Governments suggest that the conference consider as affording a basis for such a Charter the proposals for the establishment of a general international organization which were made public last October as a result of the Dumbarton Oaks conference and which have now been supplemented by the following provisions for Section C of Chapter VI:
"1. Each member of the Security Council should have one vote.
"2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters should be made by an affirmative vote of seven members.
"3. Decisions of the Security Council on all matters should be made by an affirmative vote of seven members, including the concurring votes of the permanent members provided that, in decisions under Chapter VIII, Section A and under the second sentence of Paragraph 1 of Chapter VIII, Section C, a party to a dispute should abstain from voting.'
"Further information as to arrangements will be transmitted subsequently.
"In the event that the Government of -------- desires in advance of the conference to present views or comments concerning the proposals, the Government of the United States of America will be pleased to transmit such views and comments to the other participating Governments."
It was agreed that the five nations which will have permanent seats on the Security Council should consult each other prior to the United Nations conference on the question of territorial trusteeship.
The acceptance of this recommendation is subject to its being made clear that territorial trusteeship will only apply to
[Begin first section published Feb., 13, 1945.]
II. DECLARATION OF LIBERATED EUROPE
The following declaration has been approved:
The Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States of America have consulted with each other in the common interests of the people of their countries and those of liberated Europe. They jointly declare their mutual agreement to concert during the temporary period of instability in liberated Europe the policies of their three Governments in assisting the peoples liberated from the domination of Nazi Germany and the peoples of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems.
The establishment of order in Europe and the rebuilding of national economic life must be achieved by processes which will enable the liberated peoples to destroy the last vestiges of nazism and fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own choice. This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter - the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live - the restoration of sovereign rights and self-government to those peoples who have been forcibly deprived to them by the aggressor nations.
To foster the conditions in which the liberated people may exercise these rights, the three governments will jointly assist the people in any European liberated state or former Axis state in Europe where, in their judgment conditions require,
The three Governments will consult the other United Nations and provisional authorities or other Governments in Europe when matters of direct interest to them are under consideration.
When, in the opinion of the three Governments, conditions in any European liberated state or former Axis satellite in Europe make such action necessary, they will immediately consult together on the measure necessary to discharge the joint responsibilities set forth in this declaration.
By this declaration we reaffirm our faith in the principles of the Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration by the United Nations and our determination to build in cooperation with other peace-loving nations world order, under law, dedicated to peace, security, freedom and general well-being of all mankind.
In issuing this declaration, the three powers express the hope that the Provisional Government of the French Republic may be associated with them in the procedure suggested.
[End first section published Feb., 13, 1945.]
III. DISMEMBERMENT OF GERMANY
It was agreed that Article 12 (a) of the Surrender terms for Germany should be amended to read as follows:
The study of the procedure of the dismemberment of Germany was referred to a committee consisting of Mr.
. This body would consider the desirability of associating with it a French representative.
IV. ZONE OF OCCUPATION FOR THE FRENCH AND CONTROL COUNCIL FOR GERMANY.
It was agreed that a zone in Germany, to be occupied by the French forces, should be allocated France. This zone would be formed out of the British and American zones and its extent would be settled by the British and Americans in consultation with the French Provisional Government.
It was also agreed that the French Provisional Government should be invited to become a member of the Allied Control Council for Germany.
The following protocol has been approved:
On the Talks Between the Heads of Three Governments at the Crimean Conference on the Question of the German Reparations in Kind
1. Germany must pay in kind for the losses caused by her to the Allied nations in the course of the war. Reparations are to be received in the first instance by those countries which have borne the main burden of the war, have suffered the heaviest losses and have organized victory over the enemy.
2. Reparation in kind is to be exacted from Germany in three following forms:
3. For the working out on the above principles of a detailed plan for exaction of reparation from Germany an Allied reparation commission will be set up in Moscow. It will consist of three representatives - one from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, one from the United Kingdom and one from the United States of America.
4. With regard to the fixing of the total sum of the reparation as well as the distribution of it among the countries which suffered from the German aggression, the Soviet and American delegations agreed as follows:
The British delegation was of the opinion that, pending consideration of the reparation question by the Moscow reparation commission, no figures of reparation should be mentioned.
The above Soviet-American proposal has been passed to the Moscow reparation commission as one of the proposals to be considered by the commission.
VI. MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS
The conference agreed that the question of the major war criminals should be the subject of inquiry by the three Foreign Secretaries for report in due course after the close of the conference.
[Begin second section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
The following declaration on Poland was agreed by the conference:
"A new situation has been created in Poland as a result of her complete liberation by the Red Army. This calls for the establishment of a Polish Provisional Government which can be more broadly based than was possible before the recent liberation of the western part of Poland. The Provisional Government which is now functioning in Poland should therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic leaders from Poland itself and from Poles abroad. This new Government should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity.
"M. Molotov, Mr. Harriman and Sir A. Clark Kerr are authorized as a commission to consult in the first instance in Moscow with members of the present Provisional Government and with other Polish democratic leaders from within Poland and from abroad, with a view to the reorganization of the present Government along the above lines. This Polish Provisional Government of National Unity shall be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot. In these elections all democratic and anti-Nazi parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates.
"When a Polish Provisional of Government National Unity has been properly formed in conformity with the above, the Government of the U.S.S.R., which now maintains diplomatic relations with the present Provisional Government of Poland, and the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the United States of America will establish diplomatic relations with the new Polish Provisional Government National Unity, and will exchange Ambassadors by whose reports the respective Governments will be kept informed about the situation in Poland.
"The three heads of Government consider that the eastern frontier of Poland should follow the Curzon Line with digressions from it in some regions of five to eight kilometers in favor of Poland. They recognize that Poland must receive substantial accessions in territory in the north and west. They feel that the opinion of the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity should be sought in due course of the extent of these accessions and that the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should thereafter await the peace conference."
It was agreed to recommend to Marshal Tito and to Dr. Ivan Subasitch:
IX. ITALO-YOGOSLAV FRONTIER - ITALO-AUSTRIAN FRONTIER
Notes on these subjects were put in by the British delegation and the American and Soviet delegations agreed to consider them and give their views later.
X. YUGOSLAV-BULGARIAN RELATIONS
There was an exchange of views between the Foreign Secretaries on the question of the desirability of a Yugoslav-Bulgarian pact of alliance. The question at issue was whether a state still under an armistice regime could be allowed to enter into a treaty with another state.
suggested that the Bulgarian and Yugoslav Governments should be informed that this could not be approved.
suggested that the British and American Ambassadors should discuss the matter further with
agreed with the proposal of
XI. SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE
The British delegation put in notes for the consideration of their colleagues on the following subjects:
(a) The Control Commission in Bulgaria. (b) Greek claims upon Bulgaria, more particularly with reference to reparations. (c) Oil equipment in Rumania.
exchanged views on the situation in Iran. It was agreed that this matter should be pursued through the diplomatic channel.
[Begin third section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
XIII. MEETINGS OF THE THREE FOREIGN SECRETARIES
The conference agreed that permanent machinery should be set up for consultation between the three Foreign Secretaries they should meet as often as necessary, probably about every three or four months.
These meetings will be held in rotation in the three capitals, the first meeting being held in London.
[End third section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
XIV. THE MONTREAUX CONVENTION AND THE STRAITS
It was agreed that at the next meeting of the three Foreign Secretaries to be held in London, they should consider proposals which it was understood the Soviet Government would put forward in relation to the Montreaux Convention, and report to their Governments. The Turkish Government should be informed at the appropriate moment.
The forgoing protocol was approved and signed by the three Foreign Secretaries at the Crimean Conference Feb. 11, 1945.
E. R. Stettinius Jr.
AGREEMENT REGARDING JAPAN
The leaders of the three great powers - the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Great Britain - have agreed that in two or three months after Germany has surrendered and the war in Europe is terminated, the Soviet Union shall enter into war against Japan on the side of the Allies on condition that:
It is understood that the agreement concerning Outer Mongolia and the ports and railroads referred to above will require concurrence of Generalissimo
. The President will take measures in order to maintain this concurrence on advice from Marshal
The heads of the three great powers have agreed that these claims of the Soviet Union shall be unquestionably fulfilled after Japan has been defeated.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Fast Facts
Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as America's president for over 12 years, longer than any other person before or since. He was in power during the Great Depression and throughout most of World War II. His policies and decisions had and continue to have an enormous impact on America. For more in depth information, you can also read the Franklin D. Roosevelt Biography.
Fast Facts: Franklin D. Roosevelt
- Birth: January 30, 1882
- Death: April 12, 1945
- Known for: Four-term President of the U.S.
- Term of Office: March 4, 1933-April 12, 1945
- Number of Terms Elected: 4 Terms Died during his 4th term.
- Spouse: Eleanor Roosevelt (His fifth cousin once removed)
- Famous Quote: "The United States Constitution has proved itself the most marvelously elastic compilation of rules of government ever written." Additional Franklin D. Roosevelt quotes.
HISTORY, April 11: U.S. forces liberate Nazi concentration camp in 1945
Today is Wednesday, April 11, the 101st day of 2018. There are 264 days left in the year.
Today's Highlight in History:
On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which included the Fair Housing Act, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
In 1689, William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.
In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, ending the War of the Spanish Succession.
In 1865, President Abraham Lincoln spoke to a crowd outside the White House, saying, "We meet this evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart." (It was the last public address Lincoln would deliver.)
In 1921, Iowa became the first state to impose a cigarette tax, at 2 cents a package.
In 1945, during World War II, American soldiers liberated the Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald in Germany.
In 1947, Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers played in an exhibition against the New York Yankees at Ebbets Field, four days before his regular-season debut that broke baseball's color line. (The Dodgers won, 14-6.)
In 1951, President Harry S. Truman relieved Gen. Douglas MacArthur of his commands in the Far East.
In 1953, Oveta Culp Hobby became the first Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare.
In 1970, Apollo 13, with astronauts James A. Lovell, Fred W. Haise and Jack Swigert, blasted off on its ill-fated mission to the moon.
In 1974, Palestinian gunmen killed 16 civilians, mostly women and children, in the northern Israeli town of Kiryat Shemona.
In 1988, the hijackers of a Kuwait Airways jetliner killed a second hostage, dumping his body onto the ground in Larnaca, Cyprus. "The Last Emperor" won best picture at the 60th annual Academy Awards ceremony Cher won best actress for "Moonstruck," Michael Douglas best actor for "Wall Street."
In 1998, the executive committee of the Ulster Union Party voted 55-23 to support the Northern Ireland peace accord and its leader, David Trimble, who had outmaneuvered rebels in his ranks.
Ten years ago: Group of Seven financial officials meeting in Washington pledged to strengthen their regulation of banks and other financial institutions while anxiously hoping the credit crisis in the United States would be a short one. French troops captured six pirates after the pirates released 30 hostages who were aboard the French luxury yacht Le Ponant when it was seized off Somalia's coast.
Five years ago: Congress' most serious gun-control effort in years cleared its first hurdle as the Senate pushed past conservatives' attempted blockade, rebuffing 68-31 an effort to keep debate from even starting. (However, proposals for tighter background checks for buyers as well as bans on assault weapons and high-capacity ammunition magazines went down to defeat six days later.) Comedian Jonathan Winters, 87, died in Montecito, California.
One year ago: In Dortmund, Germany, three explosions went off near Borussia Dortmund's team bus ahead of a Champions League quarterfinal match, injuring one of the soccer team's players. (Prosecutors alleged that the suspected bomber bet that Borussia Dortmund's shares on the stock exchange would drop in value and tried to disguise the attack as Islamic terrorism.) Guitarist J. Geils, founder of The J. Geils Band, died in his Massachusetts home at age 71. David Letterman's mother, Dorothy Mengering, a Midwestern homemaker who became an unlikely celebrity on her son's late-night talk show, died at age 95.
Today's Birthdays: Ethel Kennedy is 90. Actor Joel Grey is 86. Actress Louise Lasser is 79. Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Ellen Goodman is 77 Movie writer-director John Milius is 74. Actor Peter Riegert is 71. Movie director Carl Franklin is 69. Actor Bill Irwin is 68. Country singer-songwriter Jim Lauderdale is 61. Songwriter-producer Daryl Simmons is 61. Rock musician Nigel Pulsford is 57. Actor Lucky Vanous is 57. Country singer Steve Azar is 54. Singer Lisa Stansfield is 52. Montana Gov. Steve Bullock is 52. Rock musician Dylan Keefe (Marcy Playground) is 48. Actor Johnny Messner is 48. Actor Vicellous (vy-SAY'-luhs) Shannon is 47. Rapper David Banner is 44. Actress Tricia Helfer is 44. Rock musician Chris Gaylor (The All-American Rejects) is 39. Actress Kelli Garner is 34. Singer Joss Stone is 31. Actress-dancer Kaitlyn Jenkins is 26.
Thought for Today: "If you want to conquer fear, don't sit at home and think about it. Go out and get busy." — Dale Carnegie, American writer-lecturer (1888-1955).
Danish W-SS POW executed by British forces 11 April 1945
Post by prorege1 » 29 Mar 2003, 00:12
Danish W-SS POW executed by British forces 11 April 1945 River Gera, Germany
I have in my collection a W-SS Soldbuch for a W-SS soldier named Svend Gustav Jensen, date of birth (Danish nationality) 19 Dec 1909. He Joined the W-SS a a volunteer 1 July 1941 and served in the SS ''Freikorps Danmark'' and subsequently Rgt 24 ''Danmark'' on the eastern front until 5 March 1945 when, after being wounded, he was hospitalised 5-12 March 1945 at the Lazarett in Stettin, North East of Berlin during the heavy fighting in the eastern part of Germany. He had mainly served as a truck driver during the entire period 1941-45 with the Danish W-SS front line units and only served on the Eastern Front with ''regular'' fighting units. After being hospitalised he was transferred to the SS-Driving school at Weimar-Buchenwald. Buchenwald was of course a KZ-camp at the time, but also a military garrison and KTL (Driving school) for SS-personnel. The Allied troops moved in from the west during early April 1945, and the latest eyewitness report for this particular volunteer is from the night of 10 April 1945 when he was captured during a Britsh night attack at the River Gera (east Germany) by British Forces. On the following 11 April 1945 day he was executed together with a few other W-SS volunteers and the civilians were ordered to let the bodies lay on the ground i.e. no burial, but on 15 April 1945 they decided to bury the executed W-SS soldiers. Svend Gustav Jensen is today buried at the common grave at Gispersleben b. Thür, Germany.
Does anybody know where/how to find further details of the above incident? It is of course not common good or acceptable practice to execute POWs irrespectve if this is done by Germans or Allied troops, but in this particular case I would appreciate if anybody has any knowledge about the reason. It appears to be a real tragedy to survive 4 years on the eastern front fighting the Soviets and when finally captured by British troops then the fate is execution, not on the date of capture, but on the following day.
My own theory is the Soldbuch contained the stamp ''Buchenwald'' - he was unfortunate enough to be posted there for drivers training and on/about 11 April 1945the Buchenwald KZ-camp was liberated by US troops and possibly every German connected, even those staying at the driving schools, on the front or similar were executed whereever they were found if they had the word ''Buchenwald'' in the Soldbuch irrespective of the reason they were posted at Buchenwald. Any assistance/information to solve this question would be appreciated.
I attach the first page of the Soldbuch so you can put a face on the history.
PICTURES FROM HISTORY: Rare Images Of War, History , WW2, Nazi Germany
Berlin in 1945 was in a bad shape. The incessant bombarding by the approaching Russian army had already reduced it to rubble. Then the street-to-street fighting devastated it even more. The pictures below show the once proud Berlin reduced to rubble.
The women of Berlin suffered most at the hands of the Soviet soldiers. But that is another story.
Dead German women lie on the street
In the Führer bunker, General Krebs and General Burgdorf had sat down side by side at some time in the early hours of that morning, drawn their Luger pistols and blown their brains out. Rochus Misch, probably the last member of the SS Leibstandarte to leave the building, saw them slumped together. After all the brandy they had consumed, they were fortunate not to have botched their suicide most painfully. Captain Schedle, the commander of the Leibstandarte guard in the Reich Chancellery, had also shot himself. Afoot wound had prevented him from getting away with the Bormann party.
Innocent civilians were caught in the cross-fire.
Of the previous night's fugitives from the Führer bunker, only the first group to leave hadstayed together. Led by Brigadeführer Mohnke, it included Hitler's personal pilot, Hans Baur, the chief of his bodyguard, Hans Rattenhuber, the secretaries and Hitler's dietician, Constanze Manzialy. In the early hours of 2 May, they had been forced to hide in a cellar off the Schönhauserallee when the area was swamped with Soviet troops. They remained concealed there until that afternoon, when finally discovered by Soviet troops. Resistance was pointless. The men were arrested immediately, but the women were allowed to go.Traudl Junge and Gerda Christian disguised themselves as men. But the striking Tyrolean Constanze Manzialy became separated from them almost immediately. One account claims that she was seized by a huge Russian infantryman and assaulted by him and his comrades. Nobody knows whether she resorted to the cyanide ampule which Hitler had presented in a brass container to each of his staff as going-away presents. In any case, shewas never seen again. Both Traudl Junge and Gerda Christian, despite alarming adventures, managed to reach the other side of the Elbe.
The Mongoloid Soviet soldiers were let loose on the German women
The occupying troops celebrated, some indulging in the rape and murder of German citizens. When Stalin was told how some of the Red Army soldiers were treating German refugees, he is reported to say: 'We lecture our soldiers too much let them have some initiative.'
"Vladlen Anchishkin, a Soviet battery commander on the 1st Ukrainian Front, sums up the horror of the whole event, when he tells how he took personal revenge on German soldiers: 'I can admit it now, I was in such a state, I was in such a frenzy. I said, 'Bring them here for an interrogation' and I had a knife, and I cut him. I cut a lot of them. I thought, 'You wanted to kill me, now it's your turn.'
On 5 May, the corpses of Hitler and Eva Braun were finally found after more interrogations. It was a windy day with an overcast sky. A renewed and more thorough search of the Reich Chancellery garden was made. A soldier spotted the corner of a grey blanket in the earth at the bottom of a shell crater. Two charred corpses were exhumed.The bodies of a German shepherd dog and a puppy were found in the same pit. General Vadis was immediately informed.Before dawn the next morning, Captain Deryabin and a driver wrapped the corpses of Hitler and Eva Braun in sheets and smuggled them out past Berzarin's cordon. They drove them to the SMERSH base at Buch, on the north-east edge of Berlin. There, in a small brick clinic, Dr Faust, Colonel Kraevsky and other pathologists summoned to examine Goebbels's corpse began work on the most important remnants of the Third Reich.
The last of the bitter fighting on the streets of Berlin
The Russians picked over the city, exploring their new prize. The impotent and ruinous Reichstag building became the symbol of Russian victory. It had ceased to function as a democratic assembly soon after Hitler came to power. Marshal Zhukov added his signature to the other son the stonework of the interior. The journalist Konstantin Simonov wandered around the Tiergarten. He looked in at the Zoo to see the dead and emaciated animals lying beside the bodies of SS men. He went to the huge Anti-Aircraft Tower that had fought to the last. Inside there had been drunken orgies as the last act had been played out. There were the bodies of suicides everywhere. In one cubicle he found a dead SS general,his uniform tunic unbuttoned and a bottle of champagne between his legs. He had committed suicide with his mistress, who lay beside him in a pretty white blouse and skirt. He went on to the Reich Chancellery where agents of Soviet Military Intelligence, or Smersh, had already identiﬁed the bodies of Goebbels and his wife and children. Hitler and Eva Braun eluded them for the time being.
After The Reich by Giles Macdonogh
To show who are the new masters