Battle of Honigfelde, 27 June 1629

Battle of Honigfelde, 27 June 1629


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Battle of Honigfelde, 27 June 1629

The battle of Honigfelde (also known as Trzciana or Sztum) was the last significant battle of the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629. Gustav Adolf of Sweden had invaded Polish Prussia in 1626 and had generally had the best of the war over the next two years. However, his position was not strong – his army was not massive, and large numbers of men were pinned down in garrisons. The Polish-Lithuanian army was smaller, but in 1629 it was about to be reinforced by a contingent of Imperial troops. These troops had been sent to Poland by the Emperor Ferdinand in an attempt to prevent Gustav Adolf intervening in the Thirty Years War. They would have the opposite effect.

In the summer of 1629 Gustav Adolf had 23,000 men, the Poles under Koniecpolski had nearly 19,000 and the Imperial force under Hans Georg von Arnim numbered 5,000. Gustav Adolf decided to make a dash south with 7,500 men, hoping to intercept Arnim and defeat him before the allies could unit. He was too late, and on 25 June Arnim and Koniecpolski united their armies.

On 27 June part of the allied army caught up with the Swedish rearguard of 2,000 cavalry. Koniecpolski lined up with the Imperial reiters in the centre, the Cossacks on the left and the hussars on the right. The leader of the Swedish rearguard, Rheingraf Johann Wilhelm, attempted to outflank the allied lines, but Koniecpolski took advantage of a hidden valley to launch an attack on the Swedish left flank. The Swedish horse were driven off the battlefield and forced to retreat north.

Koniecpolski sent his faster Cossacks to chase the retreating Swedes. They made a short stand at Strasewo, before being forced back again, this time to Pulkowitz. Gustav Adolf was now present, with fresh troops. A hard fought melee followed, in which Gustav Adolf was nearly captured, and suffered back wound. Eventually the Swedes were able to escape from the battle and rejoin the main army at Stuhm.

Swedish losses were reported by Gustav Adolf as only 200 dead. The Poles claimed to have counted nearly 1,500 bodies. The Rheingraf was amongst the dead. Two hundred prisoners were taken. The battle of Honigfelde was a serious setback for Gustav Adolf, who was by now desperate to get involved in the fighting in Germany. It made it unlikely that he would be able to win the war in Prussia. Accordingly, while Polish-Lithuanian troops attacked his encampment at Marienburg, Gustav Adolf began peace negotiations, which ended with the Truce of Altmark (September 1629). Freed from the war in Poland, he was then able to intervene in the Thirty Years War, landing at Peenemünde in July 1630. The Imperial aid that had been intended to pin the Swedes down in Poland had instead freed them to intervene dramatically in Germany.


War of the Mantuan Succession

The War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31) was a related conflict of the Thirty Years' War. The starting point was the death in December 1627 of Vincenzo II, last male heir in the direct line of the House of Gonzaga. The succession involved two claimants, the French-born Duke of Nevers, and his distant cousin the Duke of Guastalla, a Spanish official.

Holy Roman Empire

Northern Italy had been contested by France and the Habsburgs for centuries, since it provided access to Southern France, an area with a long history of opposition to the central authorities. It also controlled the Spanish Road, an overland route which allowed Spain to move recruits and supplies from the Kingdom of Naples through Lombardy to their army in Flanders. The strategic importance of Mantua and its subsidiary the Duchy of Montferrat to this area resulted in a proxy war, with France supporting Nevers and Habsburg Spain backing Guastalla.


Aftermath

King Sigismund and King Gustavus Adolphus both died in 1632 Sigismund in his bed in Warsaw, and Gustavus Adolphus on the battlefield at Lutzen during the Thirty Years' War. The rivalry between Poland and Sweden would continue for decades, especially during The Deluge of 1655-1661 and the Great Northern War of 1700-1721. In 1668, John II Casimir Vasa, the last Vasa ruler of Poland, was forced to abdicate after a short but bloody civil war, and his successor Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki ushered in a series of Polish kings from several different dynasties (Wisniowiecki, Sobieski, Wettin, Leszczynski, and Poniatowski).


Battle of Honigfelde, 27 June 1629 - History

This page will be an evolving resource as I will update it as I find out new information.
Last updated 23rd December 2020.

Why the Polish-Swedish Wars?

As the final preparations for the Lutzen, 1632 game at Salute 2019 neared completion I started to think about what battle I wanted to focus on next. In researching the Swedish army of 1632, and Gustav Adolf, I had read a lot about the crucible of the new Swedish army that had such an impact in the Thirty Years War. This crucible was Gustav's wars with the Poles as he expanded Swedish territory in to Lithuania, Prussia and Poland at the expense of the Polish-Lithunanian Commonwealth. I have always been intrigued by the Polish armies of the Renaissance, especially their exotic cavalry, including the amazing 'Winged Hussars'. Having already collected a Swedish / German army it therefore seemed that I was well placed to expand in to Eastern-European warfare, and explore Gustav Adolf's earlier military career. (Longer term thoughts also started to spring up. Things like "once you've got a Polish army then Ottomans would be a natural progression". Such is the mind of a wargamer!)

Which Battle?

I like my wargaming projects to focus on a particular battle or campaign. This helps me focus on the forces and terrain to collect. A couple of quick Google searches showed up the battles that Gustav Adolph fought against the Poles.

This Wikipedia entry gives an overview of all of the Polish-Swedish wars as context:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish–Swedish_wars

There is a great presentation on YouTube which gives a background to the wars of this period in the Baltic (the comments to this video give some reading recommendations):
https://youtu.be/LUALKkT5WRI

I came up with a candidate list as follows:

  • Battle of Wallhof or Walmozja 1626
  • Battle of Gniew or Mewe 1626
  • Battle of Selburg 1626
  • Battle of Czarne or Hammerstein 1627
  • Battle of Dirschau or Tczew 1627
  • Battle of Górzno 1629
  • Battle of Honigfelde or Trzciana 1629

I chose Dirschau / Tczew 1627 as it seemed to have the most interesting forces and terrain, and it also had Gustav, and the top Polish general of the period Stanisław Koniecpolski, in command of their respective armies. Below you'll see more details on this battle, but most of the information is applicable to the whole 1620s period, if not even wider.

Sources of Information

The information is broken down in to 'historical' and 'wargames'. The historical information is background information, and the wargames information covers figures, terrain etc. Within each part I have split the info between the web and books.

Historical

Polish Renaissance Warfare
A colourful site with an overview of Poland's wars in the Renaissance. Some interesting pictures and high level maps

Kadrinazi Update May 2020
A fabulous blog focused on all sorts of historical topics, and a wealth of information on 17th century European conflicts, with the main focus being Polish 17th century topics. The link here is to 'Hussar' labels on the blog. There is also an entry on Dirschau/Tczew. Note, mostly written in Polish, but Google Translate is your friend -) . The blog's author also has two FaceBook blogs, one in English and one in Polish. At the time of writing (May 2020) the author is active on both and is very helpful in answering questions. He has written a book due to be published by Helion this year - can't wait!

Battle of Dirschau - Wikipedia
Good summary of the battle from Wikipedia

Dariusz caballeros: Tczew AD 1627 - Dirschau
A blog with many 17th century items, including Polish information. Some of the the blog is written in Polish and some in English. Linked to item is a review of the Tczew 1627 book (see below)

Spotkanie z Kubą Pokojskim cz. 1 - Tv Tetka Tczew HD - YouTube
A YouTube of an interview (in Polish) with the author of the Tczew 1627 book.

Dawny Tczew - Tczew 1627 Map
A Polish online community forum for the town of Tczew in Poland. The historical section includes some interesting discussion on the 1627 battle. This link has some great maps and contemporary illustrations, including a link to the Sveriges Krig map of the battle.

Riksarkivet - Search the collections - Dirschau
Swedish National Archies site - here is the results for a search on 'Discahu'. Some interesting pictures of the Swedish earthworks.

TMP Swedes in Poland Topic
An interesting topic from TMP with a big post from 'Daniel S' on the Swedish order of battle. Note from 2011

TMP Online access to Sveriges Krig, 1611-1632
A topic I started on TMP to find out how to access Sveriges Krig. Daniel S gives a salutary warning about this source.

The 'Journael, van de legatie, gedaen in de jaren 1627 en 1628' by A. Booth
The 1627 battle took place while a Dutch litigation was visiting the Polish camp as part of peace negotiations. One of the members of the Dutch litigation wrote an illustrated journal which is available online. Some great contemporary illustrations from the actual battle-site. The equivalent of 17th century war journalism!

Source material for 17th Century Polish campaigns - Tales from a Wargame Shed
A blog including a post on info for the Polish army in the 17th century.

GMT Games - Gustav Adolf: With God & Victorious Arms
This may seem an odd link for historical information. GMT are one of the major producers of historical, hex based boardgames. Some time ago they produced Gustav Adolf: With God & Victorious Arms as part of their Pike and Shot series. This game includes a number of Gustav's major battles, including Dirschau/Tczew. The GMT site includes a free download of the rules for the game which includes orders of battle, deployment, map, and historical background. There is even a handy bibliography. (Sadly the game is now only available second-hand. I would love to give it a try so if you see one for sale then let me know!)

Gustav II Adolf in Livonia and Polish Prussia, 1617-1629 - Paradox Interactive Forums
A games forum which has an interesting discussion around the conflict in Polish Prussia.

Guerra polaco-sueca (1626-29) - Arre caballo
A site in Spanish covering the Polish / Swedish wars. Some nice pictures and graphics.

15 Things You Should Know About The Polish Winged Hussars
One of those 'X greatest' sites. Very advert heavy. Does have some nice Hussar pictures!

16th/17th Century Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth Clothing images
A Pinterest collection of Polish images. Very handy for painting inspiration.

Fire and Sword recommended websites and blogs
From the By Fire and Sword site - their recommended online resources for this period.

Polish Light Artillery
Despite the title this is about a lot more than just artillery. This site seems to be by a Renaissance reenactment group in Poland. Lots of interesting information and great pictures.

Radoslaw Sikora - Ciekawostki Historyczne
A selection of articles (in Polish) by the author of Husaria (see below)

Hussar PhD Thesis
The PhD thesis (in Polish) on Hussars by the author of Husaria (see below).

Books

Polish Armies 1569-1696 (1), Osprey Men-at-Arms, Richard Brzezinski
Classic Osprey. Great information and illustrations. Brzezinski is one of my favourite of the Osprey authors, and the two Polish Men-at-Arms have my favourite Osprey artist as well, Angus McBride. You should probably get these even if you're not planning a Polish army! The first volume covers the home-grown Polish troops.

Polish Armies 1569-1696 (2), Osprey Men-at-Arms, Richard Brzezinski
Second volume to that above. This one covers 'foreign' troops appearing in Polish armies. Another 'must buy'.

Polish Winged Hussars 1576-1775, Osprey Warrior, Richard Brzezinski
Not surprising that Osprey focused on these iconic troops. A other great book and well worth the addition to the other titles above.

The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (1) Infantry, Osprey Men-at-Arms, Richard Brzezinski
The two Swedish volumes from Osprey cover Gustav's early career in the Baltic and Poland, as well as the perhaps more famous period in Germany. More great stuff from Osprey. This first volume covers the infantry.

The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (2) Cavalry, Osprey Men-at-Arms, Richard Brzezinski
Second volume to go with that above, this time covering mounted troops and the artillery.

Actions of the Thirty Years War - Eastern Europe, the Baltic, Italy and France, Partizan Press, William P. Guthrie
Guthrie has three volumes covering the battles and actions of the Thirty Years War. The first two have been out for some time. I find him an engaging read and there is lots of information on the battles, and the orders of battle in all three volumes. He seems to get criticism from current historians for focusing too much / solely on English sources, so perhaps be aware of this, rather than assuming the books as 'gospel'. The first two volumes are probably still the most accessible description of the war in English. This third volume was published after Guthrie's death and focuses on the less well known theatres, which luckily for me includes the Polish-Swedish conflict. Definitely worth the investment for English speakers.

The Northern Wars 1558-1721, Routledge, Robert I. Frost
This seems to be the main, accessible in English, history of the period for people starting out, like me. Suggested to me by none other than Sir Sidney Roundwood himself (blog link).

Warriors of the Hungarian Frontier 1526-1686, Zrinyi Kiadó, Gyözö Somogyi
Perhaps an odd title to include as this is purely based on the Hungarians and their conflicts with the Turks. However, the Poles seemed to have copied many fashions from the Hungarians, and Turks, and so the illustrations here provide some interesting ideas for figure painting.

Renaissance Armies 1480-1650, PSL, George Gush (2nd ed.)
Although this book is now quite old there isn't another volume that I think summaries this period as well. Great to dip into for all of the classic armies in this period. Just be aware that some interpretations may have moved on since the 1970s.

(Battle of) Tczew 1627, Instytut Wydawniczy ERICA, Kuba Pokojski with Radosław Sikora
I was very pleased to find a recent volume that focused on the very battle I am trying to recreate. Unfortunately for me this is in Polish, so I have to rely on computer translations. Interesting to look at the battle from the Polish perspective as much of the history in English is focused on Gustav Adolf. This has detailed orders of battle for both armies, and some great maps of the battle.

Hursaria - Duma Polskiego Oręża, Znak Horyzont, Radosław Sikora
I have Amazon to thank for this volume as, based on my search history I guess, the site kept suggesting this book to me. A very detailed history of the Polish Hussars using lots of Polish primary sources. Once again, sadly for me this is in Polish (surely there must be a market for a translation?). I'm still very much enjoying reading this thanks to computer based translation. Fantastic illustrations throughout and great photographs of the author and others recreating various Polish troops of the period.

Sveriges Krig (Sweden's Wars) 1611-1632 Volume II, Polish Wars, General Staff, Stockholm (1636)
I've not laid hands on this yet, but it is an important Swedish source for this period. Written by the historical branch of the Swedish General staff in the 1930s it used period documents to produce beautiful maps of many of the engagements. Needs to be used with caution - see comments on TMP, link.

A Warrior Dynasty: The Rise and Decline of Sweden as a Military Superpower, Henrik O. Lunde
Available as a very reasonably priced ebook. Not yet purchased, but looks interesting link.

With Fire and Sword, by Henryk Sienkiewicz.
Perhaps a bit odd to have a novel as suggested reading, but this book is a great way of visiting 17th century Poland. Sienkiewicz is a Polish version of Dickens, a very famous and prolific late 19th century writer, with his trilogy of novels set in Poland in the mid 17th century being his most famous work. With Fire and Sword is the first novel in the Trilogy. Luckily they are translated in to English and there are free ebooks available (link). The trilogy is set during the historical events of one of the Cossack uprisings. There is romance, intrigue, action and drama, with lots of period and location flavour. Read with caution, unless you want to end up buying Eastern European armies as well -)

With Fire and Sword (the Movie!)
Inevitably there have been several movies made based on the Trilogy. Here is the 1999 version on Youtube - link. In Polish with English subtitles.


Wargames

  • The Assault Group (TAG). A good range of cavalry and foot. Probably one of the best Eastern European ranges for this period out there at the moment. https://theassaultgroup.co.uk/product-category/renaissance/polish/
  • Wargames Foundry. Quite an old range nay the Perry brothers. Not a lot of figure variation. https://www.wargamesfoundry.com/collections/16th-17th-century-renaissance-polish
  • Warlord Games. So far only Winged Hussars. Hoping they do more soon! https://store.warlordgames.com/products/polish-winged-hussars-boxed-set
  • Redoubt. A few figures. Not sure how active this company is now? https://www.redoubtenterprises.com/product-category/renaissance/cavalry-renaissance/eastern-european-cavalry/
  • Warfare Miniatures. Update May 2020 A comprehensive range of the later 17th and early 18th century period, with Turkish, Cossack and Tartar figures for the Eastern European conflicts so far. At the time of wiring (May 2020) Cossack and Tartar cavalry have been previewed but not yet available. https://www.leagueofaugsburg.com/shop/products-subcat-58.html
  • 1898 Miniatures. Update May 2020 A recent range ('Tercio') aimed at Spanish troops for the first half of the 17th century. Would be suitable for 'German' infantry. https://www.1898miniaturas.com/shop/en/48-spanish-tercios-28mm-miniatures

1/72 Depot. Miniatures – Plastic Soldiers – Scale Models
A blog by a commission painter with a stunningly painted Polish army - inspirational! Also includes some rather nice downloadable Polish flags.

Hook Island Gaming
A blog including a project on building a 17th century Polish army - beautifully painted figures.

Carryings On Up The Dale
A great refight of The Battle of Vienna, 1683 - lovely Polish figures!

Battle Flag
Commercially available 28mm Polish flags and lance pennons.

Flags of War
Polish lance pennons from my favourite flag maker. Iain also does great Swedish flags!

Books

There is a separate project page on this blog covering my review of 17th century wargames rules here: https://theviaregia.blogspot.com/p/17th-century-wargames-rules.html

Of particular interest for the Swedish Polish Wars are:
By Fire and Sword by Konrad Sosiński & Rafal Szwelicki (link)

The rules are part of a whole game system produced by the Wargamer company in Poland. The rule system is focused on 17th century battles in Eastern Europe. Check out the website here http://www.fireandsword.wargamer.pl/ . They sell everything for the game, including figures and terrain. The figures and terrain are designed for 15mm. The rules come in a hefty tome - but it is the sort of book that you should own, even if you will never play the game - it is stunning! The rules include army lists for 1648-78, a period that Wargamer have titled 'Republic in Flames'. There are further supplements for other time periods also available.

Epilogue

I would love to hear about any further information on this period so please comment below if you know of any other sites or books :-)


Footnotes

Sumner Hunnewell (2030 San Pedro, Arnold MO 63010 e-mail sh2030 @ sbc . com) originally hails from Scarborough but now makes his home south of St. Louis. His other interests are playing on the vintage St. Louis Perfectos baseball team and the works of J. R. R. Tolkien.

1. William S. Southgate, "The History of Scarborough from 1633 to 1783," Collections of the Maine Historical Society, vol. 3 (Portland: Brown Thurston, 1853), hereafter Southgate, "Hist. of Scarborough," p. 47 Documentary History of the State of Maine, Series II, 24 vols. (Portland: Maine Historical Society, 1869�), hereafter Documentary Hist. of Maine, 3:63 [map facing]. Black Point could be roughly considered from the Black Rocks at Ferry Beach to the Spurwink River, encompassing the whole of the original patent to Cammock. Black Point, Blue Point, and Stratton Island were included in the land incorporated as Scarborough in 1658. The ships were described as "a light vessel and two shallops" or "three vessels" (Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, ed., Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, 5 vols. in 6 [Boston: William White, 1853󈞢], hereafter Mass. Bay Records, 5:134 John Hull, "Diary of John Hull," hereafter "Hull Diary," Archæologia Americana, Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, 7 vols. [Worcester, Mass.: The American Antiquarian Society, 1820󈟁], hereafter Archæologia Americana, 3:243). Thomas Hammond of Cambridge petitioned the government two weeks after the battle, as he felt his servant’s fine for not going when impressed was excessive, especially since he was impressed for 25 weeks before and used Hammond’s own team for the country’s service. He appealed the ٢ fine levied against the unnamed servant, which is galling when one considers his master’s wealth and the hindsight of the events at Black Point. Another impressed man from Medfield, Vincent Shuttleworth, also refused service and found himself fined ٢. (Thomas Hammond to the Governor and Council, 12 July 1677, Massachusetts Archives 69:153 Fredrick Stam Hammond, History and Genealogies of the Hammond Families in America, 2 vols. [Oneida, New York: Ryan & Burkhart, 1902𔃂], 2:1𔃄 William S. Tilden, History of the Town of Medfield, Massachusetts [Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1887], hereafter Tilden, Hist. of Medfield, p. 94 Documentary Hist. of Maine 6:170, 176󈞹 Mass. Bay Records, 5:144󈞙 John Romeyn Brodhead, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New-York, Procured in Holland, England and France, 15 vols. [Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co., 1853󈟃], hereafter Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:264󈞭 [Edmund Andros, 18 April 1678]).

2. In Jan. 1677, over 500 families and an estimated 2300 people had been displaced and resided in towns in Massachusetts many of these refugees were from Maine (Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 3[1832 reprint, Manchester, N.H.: John B. Clarke, 1870]:101𔃀). Although a member The Ancient and Honorable Artillery and receiving a promotion from lieutenant to captain soon after the outbreak of war, Joshua Scottow, one of the largest landowners in Scarborough, seems never to have taken any part in any military action during the war. (Sybil Noyes, Charles Thornton Libby, and Walter Goodwin Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire [Portland: Southworth Press, 1928󈞓], hereafter Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., pp. 614󈝻 Edward Rawson to Bryan Pendleton, Humphrey Warren, Joshua Scottow and George Munjoy, 16 Oct. 1675, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:96󈟍 Joshua Scottow to Gov. Leverett, 6 Nov. 1675, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:99�). Bartholomew Tippen (or Tipping) was in command many times at the garrison and was a freeman of Boston (Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:99�, 141󈞖, 145󈞚, 148󈞝, 157󈞦, 162󈞬, 169, 171, 174󈞷 Mass. Bay Records, 5:129󈞊 Lucius R. Paige, "List of Freeman," New England Historical and Genealogical Register [NEHGR] 3[1849]:241). Scottow relates that the Indian "Andrew" was killed in this attack on 16 May 1677. The historian Drake mistakenly assumes that the Andrew in King Philip’s War and King William’s War are one in the same (Joshua Scottow to Increase Mather, 30 Oct. 1683, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, hereafter Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 4th ser., 7 [Boston, the Society: 1868]:631󈞌 Samuel G. Drake and H. L. Williams, The Aboriginal Races of North America, 15th ed. [New York: Hurst & Co., 1880], pp. 295, 300).

3. Southgate, "Hist. of Scarborough," p. 113n John Josselyn, New-England’s Rarities Discovered (1672 reprint, Boston: William Veazie, 1865), p. 146 Augustus F. Moulton, Old Prout’s Neck (Portland: Marks Printing House, 1924), hereafter Moulton, Old Prout’s Neck, p. 53. "Major Clark sent on shoar nineteen-twenty men" (John Curwin and John Price to Daniel Dennison?, 4 July 1677, Massachusetts Archives, 69:137󈞒, hereafter "Casualty List"). The historian Hubbard wrote, "having had good Experience of the Faithfulness and Valor of the Christian Indians about Natick, armed two hundred of them and sent them together with forty English," which is repeated or confused by most subsequent historians (only Bodge doubted these figures and surmised 40 English and 36 Indians) and is highly inaccurate. The number of men Massachusetts sent was 120 according to Gov. Andros of New York, whose intelligence came from Maj. Clarke. Gookin states there were 36 Indians. The number of men actually who took part in the battle were between 90 and 100, which included townsmen. Mather wrote 100. Later historians (Folsom, Williamson, Belknap, and Thornton) stated 90. A descendant of Capt. Swett and Maj. Gookins’s grandson, Nathaniel, wrote a letter describing the battle but the author has had no fortune finding the original. (William Hubbard, The History of the Indian Wars in New England . . . , 2 vols. [Roxbury, Mass., W. E. Woodward, 1865], hereafter Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:234 Edmund Andros, March 1678 and 18 April 1678, Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:254󈞥, 264󈞭 George Madison Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War (Boston, Mass.: the author, 1906), hereafter Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 42 Daniel Gookin, "An Historical Account of the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England," hereafter Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:471, 482󈞿 Samuel A. Green, ed., Diary of Increase Mather [Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1900], hereafter Diary of Increase Mather, p. 48 George Folsom, History of Saco and Biddeford [Saco: A. C. Putnam, 1830], hereafter Folsom, Hist. of Saco, p. 160 Jeremy Belknap, The History of New-Hampshire, 3 vols. [Dover, N.H.: privately printed, 1812], 1:82 [John Wingate Thornton], "The Swett Family," NEHGR 6[1852]:55, hereafter Thornton, "Swett Family").

4. Thomas Clarke was born around 1607 (James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England, 4 vols. [Boston: Little, Brown, 1860󈞪], hereafter Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 1:401 Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., pp. 148󈞝). According to Hubbard, "the Body of Captain Lake, preserved entire and whole and free from Purtrefaction by the Coldness of the long Winter, so as it was when found by the Discretion of one that was near him when he was slain, easily discerned to be his, by such as had known him before" (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:224). Mather paints a different picture when he says soldiers returned "the bones of Capt Lake & as much of his body as remained unconsumed" (Diary of Increase Mather, p. 48).

5. Gov. John Leverett and Council to Thomas Clarke, 22 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:173󈞶.

6. Thornton, "Swett Family", NEHGR 6(1852):50 Roland L. Warren, Loyal Dissenter: The Life and Times of Robert Pike (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, Inc., 1992), pp. 49󈞣 Joseph Dow, History of the Town of Hampton: From Its First Settlement in 1638, To the Autumn of 1892, Genealogical and Biographical, 2 vols. (n.p.: Peter E. Randall Publisher, 1988), 2:987 Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:233󈞎. Benjamin was possibly the same bp. Wymondham, co. Norfolk, 12 May 1624, son of John Swett (Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., p. 670).

7. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 182󈟀, 201𔃃.

8. Hubbard described Swett’s earlier experience at Wells: "April 29 an Indian discovered himself near Wells, on purpose, as was judged, to draw out the English into a Snare. Lieutenant Swett, that commanded the Garrison at that Time left for securing the Town, sent out eleven of the Soldiers under his Command to lie in wait in some convenient Place but as they passed along they fell into an Ambush of the Indians, who shot down two of them and mortally wound a third. The Lieutenant hearing the Guns, sent with all Speed upon the Enemy, and shot down five or six of them but was prevented of doing any considerable Spoil upon them by the Folly of an Irishman that was in his Company, who gave the Notice of the Lieutenant’s Approach, by calling out aloud, ‘here they be, here they be’ for upon that Alarum they presently ran all away out of Sight, and too fast to be pursued." (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:231󈞌).

9. Records and Files of the Quarterly Courts of Essex County, Massachusetts, 9 vols. (Salem, Mass., 1911󈞷), hereafter Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:435.

10. John Adams Vinton, The Richardson Memorial (Portland: Brown Thurston & Co., 1876), hereafter Vinton, Richardson Memorial, pp. 31󈞑, 42󈞘. James Richardson was bp. Charlestown, Mass., 11 July 1641, son of Ezekiel and Susanna (—) Richardson (Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins, 3 vols. [Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995], hereafter Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 3:1580󈞿. See also the treatment of the Richardson family in Walter Goodwin Davis, The Ancestry of Sarah Hildreth, 1773�, Wife of Annis Spear of Litchfield, Maine (Portland, Maine: The Anthoensen Press, 1958), pp. 25󈞑.

11. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 109, 300𔂿, 397, 399 Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:471, 482󈞿 Wilson Waters, History of Chelmsford, Massachusetts (Lowell: Courier-Citizen Co., 1917), hereafter Waters, Hist. of Chelmsford, pp. 116󈝾. Richard- son’s hay and barn were set on fire at different times and, although unwarranted blame was placed on the Indians by the townsmen, Richardson trusted the local Indians as it later came to light that Indians outside of the area had set them alight. The Indians were only allowed to live in four Indian towns and were only allowed to leave with a certificate from an English authority (Mass. Bay Records, 5:136󈞑).

12. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 108󈝶 Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:471.

13. Maj. Gookin who commanded the forces for Middlesex County was charged with supplying Richardson his orders and his recruits (Edward Rawson to Daniel Gookin, 15 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:171).

14. Vinton, Richardson Memorial, pp. 43󈞘.

15. Letter, [1? June] 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:172.

16. "Casualty List." Daniel Blanchard (or Blackhead) may have been the son of Samuel and Mary (Sweester) Blanchard, who lived in Andover "after 1664" and married in 1654. However, Abbot says that Samuel Blanchard moved from Charlestown to Andover in 1686 and that two of his sons settled there. (Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 1:196 Abiel Abbot, History of Andover from its Settlement to 1829 [Andover, Mass.: Flagg and Gould, 1829], hereafter Abbot, History of Andover, p. 39).

17. Abbot, History of Andover, pp. 19󈞀, 39 Sarah Loring Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover, (Comprising the Present Towns of North Andover and Andover) (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1880), hereafter Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover, pp. 11, 102𔃂, 151, 170, 416, 574 Augustus G. Parker, Parker in America 1630� (Buffalo: Niagara Frontier Publishing Co., 1911), hereafter Parker, Parker in America, pp. 54󈞣 Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:343󈞘 "Casualty List." John Parker was b. 30 June 1656, son of Joseph and Mary (—) Parker. James Parker was b. 14 Aug. 1655, son of Nathan and Mary (—) Parker (Vital Records of Andover to the End of the Year 1849, 2 vols. [Topsfield, Mass.: Topsfield Historical Society, 1912], 1:292).

18. Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:404 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 167, 437 Abbot, History of Andover, p. 38 Bailey, Historical Sketches of Andover, pp. 118, 152, 170 "Casualty List." John Phelps was b. 13 or 15 Dec. 1657, son of Edward and Elizabeth (Adams) Phelps (Vital Records of Newbury, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, 2 vols. [Salem: Essex Institute, 1911], hereafter Newbury VRs, 1:401). It seems evident that Samuel and John were related. As restitution for the Swamp Fort battle, Samuel was entitled to land, which Edward, John’s older brother, claimed in 1735.

19. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 166󈞯, 240 "Casualty List." Benjamin Morgan was born before 1650, son of Robert and Margaret (—) Morgan of Beverly (Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:233). Moses may have fallen at Black Point during this battle. His brother, Samuel, was given administration of his estate in April 1678 ([George Ernest Dow, ed.,], The Probate Records of Essex County, Massachusetts, 3 vols. [Salem, Mass., 1916󈞀], hereafter Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:234). Although there were attacks on Black Point after this time, they were to kill cattle no deaths were reported (Andrew Johnson to Joshua Scottow, 8 Oct. 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:196󈟍). Joseph’s role is unknown other than he laid claim to one of the Narragansett townships (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 423, 443, 446󈞛).

20. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 166󈞯, 449 "Casualty List." "In all this troubled period, there is no record that any hostile Indian set his foot on our soil nor is it known that more than one person belonging to the town fell in fight during the war" (John J. Babson, History of the Town of Gloucester, Cape Ann, Including the Town of Rockport [Gloucester: Proctor Brothers, 1860], p. 206). Vincent Davis was perhaps the son of John Davis, who settled in Gloucester in 1656. John’s son Jacob was also in this group of eight men. (Babson, History of the Town of Glouchester, p. 206 John J. Babson, Notes and Additions to the History of Gloucester [Gloucester: M.V.B. Perley, 1876], pp. 14, 16).

22. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 86, 157, 201, 207 "Casualty List" Joshua Coffin, "Early Settlers of Essex and Old Norfolk," NEHGR 6(1852):254. In a letter to the Council while in Narragansett country on 12 June 1676, he wrote with authority requesting supplies for the troops, sending a man to Sudbury for convalescence, and sending two men to the Council (James Ford to the Governor and Council, Massachusetts Archives, 69:17). He seems to have been expected to be in Maj. Appleton’s army for the Narragansett Fort Fight, but is identified as one of "Those tht are wanting."

23. "Casualty List." Thomas Burnham Jr. was born in 1646, son of Thomas and Mary (Lawrence) Burnham. For more information on the Burnham family, see Mary Walton Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, 2 vols. (n.p.: the author, 1931󈞗), 1:129. [His mother's maiden name is a correction to information published in part one of the original Maine Genealogist article, which stated that her maiden name was Tuttle. That incorrect information came from Roderick H. Burnham's "The Burnham Family" [Hartford: Press of Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1869], p. 308). Appreciation is expressed to Martin E. Hollick for pointing out this error.]

24. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 82󈞿, 428, 474 Burnham, The Burnham Family, p. 311 Thomas Franklin Waters, Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 2 vols. (Ipswich: The Ipswich Historical Society, 1905󈝽), 1:92, 94, 127, 161 Abraham Hammatt, The Hammatt Papers: Early Inhabitants of Ipswich, Massachusetts, 1633� (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1980), pp. 41󈞖.

25. "Casualty List." Israel Honeywell was born before 1654, the son of Roger and Bridget (—) Hunnewell. Richard Hunnewell (the author’s ancestor) was a soldier, his name appearing on surviving payrolls. He was in the garrison in July and Oct. 1676 and in Aug. 1677 he was identified as a corporal at the garrison. (James M. Hunnewell and Samuel Willet Honeywell, The Descendants of Roger and Ambrose Hunnewell (Honeywell) [Columbus, Ohio: Samuel Willet Honeywell, 1972], hereafter Hunnewell Descendants, pp. 1𔃀, 81󈞿 Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:409 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 338󈞓 "Account of Narrative of ye Voyage to Pemmaquid", mss., Maine Historical Society, Collection 420 "Fogg", Vol. 8, "Scottow" file (hereafter "Voyage to Pemmaquid").

26. "Casualty List" Lloyd Orville Poland, The Polands from Essex County, Massachusetts, 3rd ed. (Chelsea, Michigan: BookCrafters, Inc., 1981), pp. 52󈞧. John Poland was b. Wenham, Mass., 6 Oct. 1657, son of John and Bethiah (Friend) Poland (Vital Records of Wenham, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849 [Salem, Mass.: The Essex Institute, 1904], p. 72 [John "Powlings"]). It may be that he had been a soldier before, a "John Pollard" being on the rolls of Capt. Brocklebank (and in the same pay list as James Ford) the year before (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 207).

27. "Casualty list." A James Birdly of Ipswich was b. 10 Feb. 1659 (Vital Records of Ipswich, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, 3 vols. [Salem: Essex Institute, 1910-19], 1:39).

28. "Casualty List" Vital Records of Lynn, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, 2 vols. (Salem: Essex Institute, 1905𔃄), 1:60 [daughters’ births], 2:432 [death of wife], 440 [daughters’ deaths] Joseph B. Felt, "Genealogical Items Relative to Lynn, Mass," NEHGR 5(1851):94. "Sarra & mary were the two children of deceased" (Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:156󈞦). The daughter Sarah seems to have been lost to recordkeepers and genealogists.

29. "Casualty List." This Samuel Beale is probably the same b. 15 July 1654, and bp. at Ipswich, son of William and Martha (Bradstreet) Beale (Vital Records of Marblehead, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, 3 vols. [Salem: Essex Institute, 1903𔃆], 1:39 Coffin, "Early Settlers of Essex and Old Norfolk," NEHGR 6[1852]:208 Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:77).

30. "Casualty List." The author has found nothing or conflicting items for each of these men from Marblehead. There is a Thomas Edwards from Marblehead who in Oct. 1677 took someone to court and later in Dec. took the Oath of Fidelity. This may mean that this was a relative or that he survived the battle. (Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, vol. 30 [Boston: the Society, 1933], p. 855 Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:399). Thomas Edwards, a mariner, was also involved in two lawsuits, in 1690 and 1692 (Records of the Court of Assistants of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay 1630�, 3 vols. [New York: AMS Press, 1973], hereafter Court of Assistants Recs., 1:331, 367). The name Joseph Morgan can be found in records, but they refer to Joseph of Beverly, brother of Benjamin who fought at Black Point (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 423, 443, 446 Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:235 Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:126).

31. "Casualty List" Court of Assistants Recs., 1:51 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 156󈞥, 217 Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, vol. 29 (Boston: Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1933), pp. 85, 187, 268. The wife of a Morgan Jones of Boston ran a "Coffee house" but was not the same Morgan Jones (ibid.).

32. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, 365, 371 "Casualty List." Caleb Pilsbury was b. Newbury, 28 Jan. 1653, son of William and Dorothy (Crosbey) Pilsbury (Newbury VRs 1:408 David B. Pilsbury and Emily A. Getchell, The Pillsbury Family [Everett, Mass.: Massachusetts Publishing Co., 1898], pp. 4, 7, 10). Coffin mistakes the year of birth as 1654 (Joshua Coffin, A Sketch of the History of Newbury, Newburyport and West Newbury [n.p.: Peter Randall, 1977], p. 314).

33. "Casualty List." James Ford is credited under Brocklebank on 24 April 1676 and Nicholas Richardson two months later (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 206𔃅).

34. "Casualty List." A Volume Relating to the Early History of Boston Containing the Aspinwall Notarial Records from 1644 to 1651 (Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1903), pp. 249󈞞 George Valentine Massey II, "Priscilla Kitchen, Quakeress, of Salem, Mass., and Kent County, Del., and Her Family," NEHGR 106(1952):38󈞞, at 39, 41 Joseph B. Felt, Annals of Salem, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (Salem: W. & S. B. Ives, 1845󈞝), 2:213 Town Records of Salem, Massachusetts, 1659-1690, 3 vols. (Salem: Essex Institute, 1868�), 2:145 Richard D. Pierce, ed., The Records of the First Church in Salem, Massachusetts 1629� (Salem: Essex Institute, 1974), p. 134 Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 2:499 Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:315󈝼. Nathaniel Hunn was born around 1650, son of Nathaniel and Sarah (Keene) Hunn of Boston. His surname was not "Kun" as Felt relates. Also, Hunn and the men subsequently described by Felt were not killed or wounded in attempting to recover Salem ketches stolen by the Indians the following month (July 1677).

35. Marie Lollo Scalisi and Virginia M. Ryan, "Peter Pattee Of Haverhill, Massachusetts: A ‘Journeyman Shoemaker’ and His Descendants," NEHGR 146(1992): 315󈞁 "Casualty List."

36. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 239, 241, 361 "Casualty List." James Verin was born in the mid- to late-1650s, son of John and Eleanor (—) Verin (John B. Threlfall, "The Verin Family of Salem, Massachusetts," NEHGR 131[1977]:108󈝶).

37. "Casualty List" The Several Inhabitants of Falmouth to the Governor and Council, 2 Feb. 1676, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 4:351󈞢 Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., p. 710.

38. George Francis Dow, The History of Topsfield (Topsfield, Mass.: The Topsfield Historical Society, 1940), pp. 40, 143, 327󈞈, 338 Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:165󈞮 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 240󈞕, 259, 423󈞘. John Wildes Jr. was born about 1645, son of John and Priscilla (Gould) Wildes (Walter Goodwin Davis, Massachusetts and Maine Families in the Ancestry of Walter Goodwin Davis (1885�), 3 vols. [Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996], pp. 619󈞈).

39. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 475󈞸. Norfolk County at that time consisted of Portsmouth, Haverhill, Great Island, Hampton, and Salisbury.

40. Stephen Brown was a son of John and Sarah (—) Brown of Hampton, N.H. (Asa W. Brown, "The Hampton Brown Family," NEHGR 6(1852):232 Gen. Dict. of Maine & N.H., p. 115). Stephen Parker was born in 1659, the son of John and Sarah (Walker) Parker (Parker, Parker in America, p. 55).

41. Rev. Henry A. Hazen, History of Billerica, Massachusetts, With a Genealogical Register, (Boston: A. Williams & Co., 1883), genealogical register, p. 45. Thomas Dutton was the son of Thomas and (possibly) Susannah (—) Dutton (ibid.). Savage says he was born in 1648 but in his 1678 petition Dutton writes that he is "now above 28 years of age" (Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 2:84– 85 Thomas Dutton to the General Court, 1 Oct. 1678, Mass. Archives 69:209󈝶, hereafter "Dutton Petition").

42. Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:350 Waters, Hist. of Chelmsford, pp. 8𔃇, 89󈟆, 754 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 122󈞆, 474. Jacob Parker was born in 1651 or 1652, the son of Jacob and Sarah (—) Parker (Vital Records of Chelmsford, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, [Salem: Essex Institute, 1914], hereafter Chelmsford VRs, p. 108).

43. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 353 Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 1:107 Lemuel Shattuck, A History of the Town of Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, from Its Earliest Settlement to 1832 (Boston: Russell, Odiorne & Co., 1835), hereafter Shattuck, Hist. of Concord, p. 362 Concord Registers, Concord, Massachusetts: Births, Marriages, and Deaths: 1635� (Boston: Beacon Press, n.d.), hereafter Concord Registers, p. 26 Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:176󈞹. John Ball was b. 15 Aug. 1660, son of Nathaniel and Mary (Mousall? or Wayne?) Ball (Frank D. Warren and George H. Ball, The Descendants of John Ball of Watertown, Massachusetts 1630� [Boston: Spaulding Moss Co., 1932], p. 11). Taken captive, Mary Rowlandson published the well-known account of this attack on Lancaster and the long sufferings of the settlers taken with her (Mary White Rowlandson, A True History of the Captivity & Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson . . . [New England and London: n.p., 1682]).

44. Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 4:221 Harriet Russell Stratton, A Book of Strattons, 2 vols. (New York: The Grafton Press, 1908󈝾), 1:161󈞪. Samuel Stratton was b. 5 March 1661, son of Samuel and Mary (Frye) Stratton (ibid.).

45. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 273, 360 Silas C. Wheat, Wheat Genealogy: A History of the Wheat Family in America, 2 vols. (Brooklyn: Silas C. Wheat, 1903󈞨), 1:42󈞤. John Wheat was b. 19 Nov. 1649, son of Moses and Tamzen/Thomasine (—) Wheat (ibid.).

46. Thomas Woolley was the son of Christopher and Ursilla (Wodell) Woolley. His parents were married in 1646 and he was probably born after 1650, as his siblings appear in town records up to that time. Gould suggests that he was born around 1660. (Shattuck, Hist. of Concord, p. 389 Concord Registers, 6 Irene Cynthia Gould, "Christopher Woolley of Concord, Mass., and Some of His Descendants," NEHGR 75[1921]:29󈞊).

47. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 281 William Coleman to John Richards, 18 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:175󈞸. John Harker was b. 30 Aug. 1643, son of Anthony and Mary (—) Harker (A Report of the Record Commissioners Containing Boston Births, Baptisms, Marriages, and Deaths, 1630� [Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1908], p. 16 Anderson, Great Migration Begins, 2:861󈞫).

48. Tilden, Hist. of Medfield, pp. 93, 95, 429 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 81, 265, 366󈞯. John Mason was born 3 Nov. 1655, son of Thomas and Margery (Partridge) Mason (Vital Records of Medfield, Massachusetts, to the Year 1850 [Boston: New-England Historic Genealogical Society, 1903], hereafter Medfield VRs, p. 69 Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:170).

49. Tilden, Hist. of Medfield, pp. 93, 95, 471󈞵 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 453. Benjamin Rockwood was b. 8 Sept. 1651, son of Nicholas and Joan (—) Rockwood (Medfield VRs, p. 88).

50. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 450 Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 30:781. There are others of this family name found in Milton from that time but nothing is known of Dike’s parentage. A Richard Dike died in 1678 and a Mary Dike was married in 1695. John Dike was discharged from attending training due to old age. (Milton Records [Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1900], pp. 114, 218 Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 30:1019).

51. "The Daybreaking, If Not The Sun-Rising of the Gospell With the Indians in New-England," Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 3rd ser., 4[Cambridge: Charles Folsom, 1834]:19 "The Clear Sun-shine of the Gospel Breaking Forth Upon the Indians in New-England," ibid., 4:56 "The Glorious Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England," ibid., 4:96 "The Light appearing more and more towards the perfect Day," ibid., 4:116 John Josselyn, An Account of Two Voyages to New- England, Made During the Years 1638, 1663 (Boston: W. Veazie, 1865), hereafter Josselyn, Two Voyages to New England, pp. 104𔃃.

52. Gookin calls James Richardson "their Lieutenant," but it is not likely that he was lieutenant over all 36 Indians that took part in the expedition (Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:516, 532󈞍). Indians from Natick took part in the expedition and these were probably a part of Swett’s "English & Indian forces now Raysed & to Goe forth on the Service of the Country agt the Eastern Indian Ennemy" (Order of Edward Rawson, 21 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:172󈞵).

53. William Biglow, History of The Town of Natick, Mass., From the Days of The Apostolic Eliot MDCL, to the Present Time, MDCCXXX (Boston: Marsh, Capen, & Lyon, 1830), hereafter Biglow, Hist. of Natick, p. 23 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 402𔃁 Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:466, 513󈝻 "Casualty List." Mr. Nowell, chaplain with Maj. Savage, wrote of the Indians soldiers, "They have behaved themselves like sober honest men since they abode with us, which hath made me look after them more carefully."

54. Charles Hudson, History of the Town of Marlborough (Boston: T.R. Marvin & Son, 1862), pp. 89󈟇 Biglow, Hist. of Natick, p. 29 "Casualty List" "Tears of Repentance: Or, A Further Narrative of the Progress of the Gospel Amongst the Indians in New-England," Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 3rd ser., 4:240󈞘. The relationship of the name Ponampam and surname Penumpum is a presumption on the author’s part but not without grounds. Job Pohpono appears on a 1684 land sale. "Job alias Pompomemay of Natick" appears on a land deed two years later. Israel Pomhamun appears as a proprietor of Natick in May 1719. (Middlesex County, Mass., Deeds, 16:511, 1712– 1714). Nothing has been found on John Nuckwich.

55. Bodge provides a list of soldiers who were paid over the next nine months and it is reasonable to believe that some of these men were at the garrison at the time based on many facts. Samuel Libby, who either died during the battle or at Boston by 10 July, was paid on 24 July. Henry and Anthony Libby were to be released from service by consent of the Council on 10 July, but they were paid in August and September, respectively. Similarly, Andrew and John Brown were to be released at the same time and they were paid in October. John Markany [McKenny] was shot "throug the brest & back" during the battle but was found on the payroll in September of the same year, which does not allow time for much convalescence it also shows that he was more than likely garrisoned there rather than impressed for the mission. Sgt. Andrew Johnson and Corp. Richard Honywell [Hunnewell] were soldiers at Black Point in Aug. 1677 and each was paid in Jan. and March 1678, respectively. (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 339 Charles T. Libby, The Libby Family in America, 1602� [Portland: B. Thurston & Co., 1882], hereafter Libby, Libby Family, p. 24n Andrew Brown Sr. to the Governor and Council, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:184󈟁 "Voyage to Pemmaquid").

56. Charles Edward Banks, History of York, Maine (1931 reprint, 2 vols., Portsmouth, N.H: Peter E. Randall Publisher, 1990), 1:206𔃇 Testimony of John Libby, Sr., et al., 18 July 1676, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:113󈝼 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 333󈞎 O. Herbert McKenny, Jr., A Story of Many Maine McKenny Families (Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1995), pp. 2𔃂 "Casualty List." John McKenney may have been born about 1630. A "John Mackane" is found in a list of prisoners ("Scotch Prisoners Sent to Massachusetts in 1652, by Order of the English Government," NEHGR 1[1847]:379).

57. Mass. Bay Records, 5:129󈞊 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 336󈞑 John Start, Thomas Bigford, and Henry Libby to the Govenor and Council, 8 Jan. 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:148󈞝. James and Samuel were born between 1636 and 1647, Henry in 1647, and Anthony about 1649 they were sons of John and Mary (—) Libby. On 10 July 1677, John Libby stated that his sons had been at the garrison for nine months. (Libby, Libby Family, pp. 24󈞅, 28).

58. Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:184󈟁 Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., pp. 113󈝺 Walter Goodwin Davis, The Ancestry of Sarah Miller 1755�, Wife of Lieut. Amos Towne of Arundel (Kennebunkport) Maine (Portland, Maine: The Southworth-Anthoensen Press, 1939), pp. 50󈞢. Andrew was born about 1658 and John between 1658 and 1662. The name of their mother is unknown. Their sister, Elizabeth, would later marry fellow soldier Matthew Libby.

59. New England’s First Fruits: with Divers other Special matters Concerning that Country (New York: Joseph Sabin, 1865), p. 17 Folsom, Hist. of Saco, pp. 81󈞿 Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana, 2 vols. (Hartford: Silas Andrus and Son, 1855), 1:357. The gathering of guns by the English early in the war and refusal to sell shot were important factors also (Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:91󈟉, 118󈝿).

60. Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 4th ser., 7:631󈞌. "Sqand doth inform them [Indians at Taconnet] that god doth speak to him and doth tell him that god hath left our nacion to them to destroy and the indenys do tak it for a truth all that he doth tell them because they haue met with no afron now." (Francis Card’s Declaration, 22 Jan. 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:149󈞟). The treaty was the first document in which Squando is named and styled "Sagamore." It was signed along with seven other Indians, including Samuel Namphow, the leader of the Wamesits. (Bodge. Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 303𔃃).

61. Josselyn states that natives "can swim naturally, striking their pawes under their throat like a dog, and not spreading their Arms as we do." He does not attribute this to children however, regarding children he states, "What other ceremonies they use more than dying of them with a liquor of boiled Hemlock-Bark, and their throwing of them into the water if they suspect the Child to be gotten by any other Nation, to see if he will swim, if he swim they acknowledge him for their own." (Josselyn, Two Voyages to New England, pp. 100, 110 Daniel E. Owen, Old Times in Saco [Saco: Biddeford Times, 1891], p. 35). Mather writes: "when inquiry was made of another English man (thought to be more discreet then the former) he confirmed what the other had said, and that some rude English did purposely overset a Canoo wherein was an Indian Lad and that although a Squaw dived to the bottome of the River and fetched him up alive, yet that the Lad never came to himself again. It is greatly to be lamented that the heathen should have any ground for such allegations, or that they should be scandalized by men that call themselves Christians." (Increase Mather, ed., The History of King Philip’s War [Albany: the editor, 1862], hereafter Mather, Hist. of King Philip’s War, p. 141). Hubbard relates a similar story, identifying the wife and child as Squando’s, but makes the offhand comment that his son might have died anyway "if no such Affront had been offered." (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:135). "If Squando or any for him appeare yow may acquaint him that the Gounor was wholly Ignorant of any Injury offered to him or his child at Saco." (Govenor and Council to Daniel Dennison and Joseph Dudley, 10 July 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:187󈟅).

62. Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:104, 178, 201 Mather, Hist. of King Philip’s War, pp. 90󈟇.

63. Bodge believed that the Indians who attacked were from the Kennebec and Androscoggin. Squando held sway over the Ammoscoggin Indians but it seems that there was enmity between many of the different Indians groups. A letter written by William Hathorne on 22 Sept. 1676 tells of the captured Pigwacket sagamore’s statement after the destruction of Arrowsic that "Kennebeck Indians kill all" (Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:123󈞄). Contrast this with the Kennebec Indians’ own comments after the battle at Moore’s Brook that "we have drove Away all the damrallscogon engins from us for they will fight and we are not willing of their company" and "we do understand that Squando is minded to cheat you he is mind to get as many prisners as he can and so b-ing them to you & so make you believe that it is Kenebeck men that have don all this spoul . . ." (Moxes et al. to the Governor, 1 July 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:177󈞻). Mather states, "There were near 100 soldiers, it is questioned whether there were so many of the Enemy" (Diary of Increase Mather, p. 48). Moulton without authority puts the number at 500 (Moulton, Old Prout’s Neck, p. 53).

64. Mass. Bay Records, 5:140󈞖 Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:254󈞥, 264󈞭. Connecticut felt the request did not fall under the articles of the United Colonies, nor did they have time to comply, and the few men needed could more readily be conscripted from Massachusetts (The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, 15 vols. [Hartford: F.A. Brown, 1850󈟆], hereafter Public Records of Conn., 2:497󈟎). Hight does not supply his source but states, "With this demand Plymouth colony declined to comply on the ground that the appointed place of rendezvous was ‘without the limit of the colonies’" (Horatio Hight, "Mogg Heigon—His Life, His Death, and its Sequel," Collections and Proceedings of the Maine Historical Society, Second Series, 10 vols. [Portland: Maine Historical Society, 1890󈟏], hereafter Maine Hist. Soc. Collections, 2nd series, 6:270).

65. Edward Rawson to Daniel Gookin, 15 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:171 Edward Rawson to Benjamin Swett, 22 June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:174󈞷 Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:234.

66. Jeremy Belknap, The History of New-Hampshire, 3 vols. (Dover, N.H.: privately printed, 1812), hereafter Belknap, History of New-Hampshire, 1:82 Soldiers of King Philip’s War, pp. 310󈝷, 323 Mass. Bay Records, 5:122󈞄. Clarke’s orders were to "Manage the sd forces to the best advantage against the Common enemy by enabling them either to March to the Head quarters, which yet without the Advice of the officers vpon the place & good probability we would not Hazard, or to other service against their private lurking places or for the strengthening & preservation of the frontier towns" (Gov. John Leverett and Council to Thomas Clarke, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:173).

67. Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:254󈞥 Silvanus Davis et al. to the Governor and Council, 23 April 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:164󈞭. The sloop may have stopped in Salem as well (Franklin B. Hough, Papers Relating to Pemaquid and Parts Adjacent in the Present State of Maine [Albany: Weed, Parsons & Company, 1856], hereafter Hough, Pemaquid Papers, pp. 8𔃇).

68. Edward Rawson to Daniel Denison, 5 May 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:166󈞯 General Court of the Colony of Connecticut to the Governor and Council, 10 May 1677, Public Records of Conn., 2:496󈟍 "100 bushells of Indian [corn] for prouission for the macquaes," Governor and Council to Daniel Gookin?, 1? June 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:172– 73. There was no mercy shown to the Mohawks among the Eastern Indians, either. Josselyn describes a particularly horrific torture of two Mohawks at the hands of the Eastern Indians (Josselyn, Two Voyages to New England, pp. 114󈝻).

69. Mass. Bay Records, 5:133󈞎 Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:254󈞥 Hough, Pemaquid Papers, pp. 14󈝻 Edmund Andros to Anthony Brockholes, Cæsar Knapton, and Matthias Nicolls, 13 June 13, 1677, Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:248󈞝. Massachusetts started planning for an extensive foray into Maine on 24 May 1677.

70. Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:172󈞵 "Hull Diary," Archæologia Americana, 3:243.

71. Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:248󈞝 Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., pp. 390󈟇, 624.

72. The Maine Indians "shewed themselves on a plain in three parties. Swett divided his men accordingly, and went to meet them." (Belknap, History of New-Hampshire, 1:82.) Swett "was marching upon the Edge of an Hill with one Party and his Lieutenant with another" (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:235). Moore’s Brook is named after Richard Moore, who settled nearby. He was the stepfather of Israel Honeywell who took part in the battle. The H.G. Storer map of Black Point for Southgate’s history shows "Swett’s Plains" well past what is generally agreed to be the battleground, which is close to the junction of current day Route 207 (Black Point Road) and Route 77 (Spurwink Road). Ware mistakenly places the battle close to present day Massacre Pond. (Southgate, "Hist. of Scarborough," pp. 77󈞺, map Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., pp. 361󈞪, 489 George W. Ellis and John E. Morris, King Philip’s War [New York: Grafton Press, 1906], hereafter Ellis & Morris, King Philip’s War, photo facing p. 312 Moses Weld Ware, Beacon Lights in The History of Prouts Neck [n.p.: Prouts Neck Association, n.d.], p. 16).

73. "The Indians, that had hid themselves in the Swamp on each Side of the Hill, suddenly fired upon the English on both Sides, which not a little discouraged his young and undisciplined Company, so as they could not or did not keep their Ranks, but while some were ready to run and shift for themselves" (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:235). "Our soldiers, some of ym basely ran away wh occasioned the slaughter" (Diary of Increase Mather, p. 48). Hight, without cause, writes: "We imagine [Richardson’s] Indians after the first volley ‘fled the field’" (Horatio Hight, "Mogg Heigon—His Life, His Death, and its Sequel," Maine Hist. Soc. Collections, 2nd series, 6:274).

74. Accounts of the number of English forces that were killed varies with the teller of the tale, but is generally consistent: "Somewhat above forty of the English, and twelve of the friendly Indians that asited . . . either killed right out or dangerously wounded" [1677] (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:235󈞐) "Tis tho’t that 50 persons were slain" [1677] (Diary of Increase Mather, p. 48) "The English lost about forty men, whereof were eight of our friendly Indians" [1677] (Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:516) "aboutt sixty men" [1678] (Colonial Hist. of N.Y., 3:256) "Capt swett : that worthey comander : was slaine : and allmost all his officers : with about 50 men besids & : 21 more that were wounded [to my best Rememberance] of which my self was one" [1678] ("Dutton Petition") "sixty more were left dead or wounded" [1812] (Belknap, History of New-Hampshire, 1:82) "Sixty English fell in this action, including a number of the inhabitants" [1830] (Folsom, History of Saco and Biddeford, p. 161) "sixty of his men, forty English and twenty Indians" [1832] (William D. Williamson, The History of the State of Maine, 2 vols. [Hallowell: Glazier, Masters & Co., 1832], 1:551) "Sixty . . . were left dead or wounded" [1852] (Thornton, "Swett Family," NEHGR 6[1852]:55). As for the number of friendly Indians killed, the author defers to Gookin. It may have been the surgeon David Middletown who tended their wounds. He traveled with Capt. Hunting to Maine in April to serve as surgeon and may have been stationed at Black Point, as later pay records show him there (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 339 Governor and Council to David Middleton, 2 April 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:162).

75. Letter from A. Brockholes et al. to the Governor and Council, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:189󈟆.

76. "Dutton Petition," author’s transcription.

77. Ellis & Morris, King Philip’s War, p. 312 Libby, The Libby Family in America, p. 24n Richard D. Pierce, ed., The Records of the First Church in Salem, Massachusetts 1629� (Salem: Essex Institute, 1974), p. 142 "Casualty List." "I Have Recivd No Wages For My service or anything of Publick Alowance for My loss of time and long suffaringe . . ." (Benjaman Rockwood Sr. to Gov. William Shirley et al., 24 Nov. 1742, Massachusetts Archives 72:622󈞄 [hereafter "Rockwood Memorial"]). "I never received for all this time more thn : 11 : & 6d for those few dayes before I was wounded " ("Dutton Petition").

78. Seaborne Cotton et al. to the Governor and Council, 3 July 1677, Massachusetts Archives 69:135a Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:435 Thornton, "Swett Family," NEHGR 6(1852):56.

79. Vinton, Richardson Memorial, pp. 43󈞘.

80. Libbey states without authority that the men were not buried until that November (Dorothy Shaw Libbey, Scarborough Becomes a Town [Freeport: Bond Wheelwright Company, 1955], p. 76). A mass grave was made at Black Point for the ambushed garrison men led by Capt. Hunnewell in 1703 (often incorrectly 1713). The pond nearby carries the name Massacre Pond to this day. Schultz and Tougias confuse this appellation and associate it with the battle between Swett and Squando. (Documentary Hist. of Maine, 3:63 [map facing] Eric B. Schultz and Michael J. Tougias, King Philip’s War [Woodstock, Vt.: Countryman Press, 1999], p. 315).

84. Abraham Hammatt, The Hammatt Papers: Early Inhabitants of Ipswich, Massachusetts, 1633� (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1980), p. 42 Burnham, The Burnham Family, p. 311 Mary Walton Ferris, Dawes-Gates Ancestral Lines, 2 vols. (n.p.: the author, 1931󈞗), 1:129.

85. Hunnewell Descendants, 81 Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:409, 8:181, 9:113󈝺, 528.

87. Vital Records of Lynn, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849, 2 vols. (Salem: Essex Institute, 1905𔃄), 2:54 Walter Goodwin Davis, The Ancestry of Lieut. Amos Towne 1737– 1793 of Arundel (Kennebunkport), Maine (Portland: The Southworth Press, 1927), pp. 53󈞣.

89. Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:398 Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 1:146. According to the casualty list Samuel Beale was killed. He m. Patience Lowell, whose nephew was John Lovewell of Lovewell’s Fight (Joseph B. Felt, "Genealogical Items Relative to Lynn, Mass.," NEHGR 5[1851]:94 Ezra S. Stearns, "Notes," NEHGR 63[1909]: 300 Albert Henry Silvester, "Richard Silvester of Weymouth, Mass., and Some of His Descendants," NEHGR 85[1931]: 257).

90. Essex Quart. Court Records, 6:452, 7:110.

91. David B. Pilsbury and Emily A. Getchell, The Pillsbury Family (Everett, Mass.: Massachusetts Publishing Co., 1898), p. 7 Essex Quart. Court Records, 7:157.

92. Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 142, 415 Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:278. It seems likely that the Maj. Isaac Appleton or his son claimed Nicholas Richardson’s land as two of his grandsons or sons settled in Buxton, a Narragansett township. The Appletons originally hailed from Rowley but moved to Ipswich. (Isaac Appleton Jewett, Memorial of Samuel Appleton [Boston: Bolles and Hougton, 1850], pp. 34󈞏).

93. Essex Co. Probate Records, 3:315󈝼 Town Records of Salem, Massachusetts, 1659– 1690, 3 vols. (Salem: Essex Institute, 1868�), hereafter Town Records of Salem, 2:323, 325󈞆 George Valentine Massey II, "Priscilla Kitchen, Quakeress, of Salem, Mass., and Kent County, Del., and Her Family," NEHGR 106(1952): 39󈞞.

94. Marie Lollo Scalisi and Virginia M. Ryan, "Peter Pattee of Haverhill, Massachusetts: A ‘Journeyman Shoemaker’ and His Descendants," NEHGR 146(1992):315󈞁 Essex Quart. Court Records, 7:289.

96. Grant from Edmund Andros, 6 Sept. 1679, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 4:386󈞒 John B. Threlfall, "The Verin Family of Salem, Massachusetts," NEHGR 131(1977):109.

97. Two of his sisters, Sarah and Phoebe, and fellow soldier and brother-in-law, Edward Bishop, were also accused, but escaped the same fate (Walter Goodwin Davis, Massachusetts and Maine Families in the Ancestry of Walter Goodwin Davis (1885�), 3 vols. [Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1996], pp. 619󈞈).

98. Asa W. Brown, "The Hampton Brown Family," NEHGR 6(1852):232 Parker, Parker in America, p. 55.

99. "Dutton Petition" Henry A. Hazen, History of Billerica, Massachusetts, With a Genealogical Register (Boston: A. Williams and Co., 1883), pp. 17, 45, 127󈞈, map. Hazen states that he married "Rebecca Draper, widow, of Concord." Shattuck wrote that Rebecca Brabrook married Adam Draper in 1666 and that they "removed to Marlborough about 1680," which must be incorrect (Shattuck, Hist. of Concord, p. 369).

100. "Casualty List" Waters, Hist. of Chelmsford, p. 755. A Jacob Parker with wife Joanne lived in Malden. He d. in 1694 at age 42 (Savage, Gen. Dict. N.E., 3:350). Other than Parker, the names of the men who might have come with Richardson from Chelmsford are unknown.

101. Concord Registers, pp. 26, 28, 35, 38, 40, 42, 45, 50, 57, 59, 60 Frank D. Warren and George H. Ball, The Descendants of John Ball of Watertown, Massachusetts, 1630� (Boston: Spaulding Moss Co., 1932), p. 12.

102. Harriet Russell Stratton, A Book of Strattons, 2 vols. (New York: The Grafton Press, 1908󈝾), 1:166.

103. Silas C. Wheat, Wheat Genealogy: A History of the Wheat Family in America, 2 vols. (Brooklyn: Silas C. Wheat, 1903󈞨), 1:54.

104. Irene Cynthia Gould, "Christopher Wooley of Concord, Mass., and Some of His Descendants," NEHGR 75(1921):31.

105. A Report of the Record Commissioners Containing Boston Births, Baptisms, Marriages, and Deaths, 1630� (Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1908), pp. 153, 155, 163, 184, 195.

106. John Wilson to the General Court, 4 April 1678, Massachusetts Archives 69:191 Tilden, Hist. of Medfield, pp. 95, 429.

107. "Rockwood Memorial" The Acts and Resolves, Public and Private, of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, 27 vols. (Boston: Wright & Potter, 1869�), 13:192, 651󈞠.

108. The petition of the selectmen of Milton was rejected, but those of the wounded Richard Russ of Weymouth and Thomas Parkes (on behalf of his wounded son John) were granted on the day of the council. Gov. John Leverett, Symon Bradstreet, Edward Tyng, and Joseph Dudley, who were on the court when Dike was sentenced for theft earlier that year, also rejected the plea of the townsmen. Dike d. 21 Nov. 1678. (Selectmen of Milton to the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, 9 May 1678, Massachusetts Archives 69:202 Mass. Bay Records, 5:207 Milton Records [Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1900], p. 218.)

109. Major Gookin stated that "eight of our friendly Indians . . . was then slain this was the greatest loss that our Indians sustained all the war." However, at least eight or eleven friendly Indians of Plymouth Colony were killed with Capt. Pierce in Feb. 1676 in an ambush that is tragically similar to the fate of the men at Black Point. (Gookin, "Christian Indians," Archæologia Americana, 2:516 Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, pp. 347󈞝 Samuel G. Drake, The Old Indian Chronicle [Boston: Samuel A. Drake, 1867], pp. 307𔃆.)

110. A "Nataniel" (along with Abraham Speen and others of Natick) signed two 1684 petitions about the sale of Indian land (Petition of Capt. Tom, Wahaughton, and Dublett to the Governor, Deputy Governor, and Assistants, 16 April 1684, Massachusetts Archives 30:287 Petition of the Indian Rulers and Indian Inhabitants of Natick to the Governor and Magistrates, 22 May 1684, Massachusetts Archives 30:279a).

111. List of Indians of Natick for sale of land, 3 Oct. 1683, Massachusetts Archives 30:276 Petition of Capt. Tom, Wahaughton, and Dublett to the Governor, Deputy Governor, and Assistants, 16 April 1684, Massachusetts Archives 30:287 Petition of the Indian Rulers and Indian Inhabitants of Natick to the Governor and Magistrates, 22 May 1684, Massachusetts Archives 30:279a Petition of the Indian Natives of Natick to Richard, Earle of Bellomont, 31 May 1699, Massachusetts Archives 30:503 Charles Hudson, History of the Town of Marlborough (Boston: T. R. Marvin & Son, 1862), pp. 89󈟇. An Abraham Speen died in 1747 but he may have been a son or other relative, as he left behind a teenage daughter (Jean M. O’Brien, Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, 1650� [New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997], pp. 100, 134󈞏, 143, 154, 186).

112. Town Records of Salem, 2:285. He may have drowned in the Ogunquit River in 1697 (Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., p. 473).

113. John Libby wrote: "4 Sonns of yor Petitioner wherof two one is Latly Kild at Black point and two more sickened at Black point of which two) one) was brought here to Boston about Tenn days agoe and Died Last night And the other two Sonns are at Black point . . ." (John Libby to the Governor and Council, 10 July 1677, Massachusetts Archives 69:145). The phrase "and Died Last night" is inserted above the normal sentence.

114. Libby, Libby Family, pp. 27󈞈.

116. Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:184󈟁.

117. Gen. Dict. Maine & N.H., p. 114 Grant of Land to John Swarton, 29 June 1687, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:267󈞰 Charles Edward Banks, History of York, Maine (1931 reprint, 2 vols., Portsmouth, N.H: Peter E. Randall Publisher, 1990), 2:225󈞆.

119. According to the Kennebec Indians, who claimed no friendship with Squando during this time, "they [Squando and his men] receiueing noe more losse then 2 kild & 2 wounded" (Journal kept by Mr. Manning, 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:180). Holland states without authority that many more Maine Indians were killed (Rupert Sargent Holland, The Story of Prouts Neck [Prouts Neck: Prouts Neck Association, 1924], p. 15).

120. "Casualty List," John Curwin and John Price to Daniel Dennison?, 4 July 1677, Massachusetts Archives, 69:137󈞒. The transcription was made by the author. It was the discovery of this casualty list and the recognizable names of the men who died from Andover that inspired the author to write this. Although it was identified elsewhere by genealogists, no historian of the battle or of Scarborough seems to have made the connection or attempted to find the names of all the soldiers that took part (Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip’s War, p. 474). Waters transcribes the Ipswich men as "James Burbee, Samll Pooler, Inc Poland, and Thomas Burns" but does not mention James Ford (Waters, Hist. of Chelmsford, p. 214.). No doubt, he renders "Burnum" as "Burns," because he knew that Thomas Burnham Jr. continued to serve Ipswich in a military fashion.

121. Diary of Increase Mather, 48.

122. Ibid. "Hull Diary," Archæologia Americana, 3:243.

123. Letter from Edward Rawson, July 15, 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:171 "Hull Diary," Archæologia Americana, 3:243. Hubbard writes: The Number they sent of English was a great deal too small, those that were chosen this Bout to take their Turns in the Service Abroad, were many of them young, raw, and unexperienced Soldiers, who were not able to look Danger, much less Death, in the Face, in cool Blood, by which Means it came to pass that the Enterprise succeeded so ill [Swett] began to try the Valor and Courage of the Company before he had disciplined them, or had any Experience of their Ability to fight. (Hubbard, History of the Indian Wars, 2:234󈞏.) The letter from Massachusetts to Connecticut read in part: Gentm. wee are not willing to say any thing tht may iustly greive or provoake, yet you well know the Proverb, Loosers ought to haue liberty given them to speake. The sad consequence of this yor neglect is apparent, & wee doubt not but tht you haue already heard thereof by Publ. fame, being no less thn the loss of 100: men slayne & taken captive by the Enemy, besides the loss of great estates by sea aswell as by land, wch in an ordinary way had ben prevented had wee had yor ayd & help according to notice given you. (David Pulsifer, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England [Boston: William White, 1859], 2:462󈞬.)

124. When the news reached Increase Mather in Boston on 15 July, he wrote "The New York men are erecting a fort near Pemaquid they have pretended a Peace with the Indians who are our Enemies & send to us that we may be included therein if we please. A most humbling Providence in more respects than one." (Diary of Increase Mather, 48.) Clarke gave his gov- ernment’s letter to those in charge at Pemaquid on 3 July starting a correspondence between Boston and Pemaquid (Governor and Council to Anthony Brockholes, 10 July 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:185󈟂). It is unknown if Clarke ever personally returned as an envoy to Pemaquid. On 18 August it was reported that "Medockawando said that Major Clarkes Sloop was Lost, staved upon the Rocks . . ." ("Voyage to Pemmaquid").

125. Moxes et al. to the Governor, 1 July 1677, Documentary Hist. of Maine, 6:177󈞻, 180.

126. "Voyage to Pemmaquid" Belknap, History of New-Hampshire, 1:82󈞿.

127. Joshua Scottow to Increase Mather, Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., 4th ser., 7:631.

128. Increase Mather, Remarkable Provinces Illustrative of the Earlier Days of American Colonisation (London: Reeves and Turner, 1890), pp. 252󈞡.


Events in History in 1629

    English King Charles I dissolves Parliament for the 4th time in his reign, summons new Parliament 11 years later, only to be dissolved after 3 months
    1st game law passed in American colonies, by Virginia England and France sign Peace of Susa French huguenot leader Duke De Rohan signs accord with Spain

Event of Interest

May 22 Emperor Ferdinand II & Danish King Christian IV sign Peace of Lubeck

    Dutch East India ship Batavia wrecks on Morning Reef off the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia, with 200 survivors (only 70 survive after three months due to mutiny and murders) [1]

Victory in Battle

Jun 18 Sea battle at Dungeness: Piet Heyn beats the Dunkirkers, commerce raiders in the service of the Spanish Monarchy

    Peace of Alès: Rights of French huguenots limited 1st non-Separatist Congregational Church in US founded (Salem, Massachusetts) Cambridge Agreement, Massachusetts Bay Company stockholders agree to emigrate

Victory in Battle

Sep 14 Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch: Spanish garrison surrenders to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange


Birthdays in History

    Tsar Alexis I of Russia [Aleksey Mikhaylovich], Tsar of Russia (1645-76), born in Moscow (d. 1676) Aleksei M Romanov, 1st Romanov tsar of Russia Juan Jose, of Austria, Spanish general/governor of Netherlands Christiaan Huygens, Dutch mathematician, astronomer (discovered Saturn's rings) and scientist (dynamics), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1695) Jan Commelin, Dutch botanist and director of Hortus Botanicus, Amsterdam, born in Leiden, Netherlands (d. 1692) Niels Juel, Danish-Norwegian admiral, born in Christiania, Norway (d. 1697) Tsar Alexei I of Russia (d. 1676) King John [Jan] III Sobieski of Poland. Victor over the Turks in 1683 (d. 1696) Cornelis Tromp, Dutch naval officer and son of Maarten Tromp, born in Rotterdam, Dutch Republic (d. 1691) Philip Howard, English Roman Catholic cardinal, born in London (d. 1694) St. Oliver Plunkett, Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and last Catholic martyr to die in England, born in Loughcrew, County Meath, Ireland (d. 1681) Pieter de Hoogh, Dutch Golden Age painter, born in Rotterdam, Netherlands (d. 1684)

Great Polish Warriors: The Winged Hussars Part I - Famous Battles


History is filled with tales of great, heroic warriors of epochs long ago. Among them were Alexander the Great, whose empire spanned from the Ionian Sea to Asia Minor, was much lauded in life as after his death for being the greatest military mastermind the world had ever known. His desire was to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea". Hannibal was a Carthaginian military commander whose most famous battle was the Second Punic War (218 to 202 BC). He led his armies in a spectacular march across the Alps, conquered Italy and consolidated his control over the Roman heartland for the next fifteen years. And Julius Caesar, whose conquest of Gaul reached all the way to the North Sea. In 55 B.C. he conducted the first invasion of Britain, a victory which ranked him as the greatest military leader in the ancient world.

But fate took its turn with each one: when Alexander the Great attempted to invade India in 326 BC, a mutiny of his own troops forced him to turn back. He died three years later never having realized his ultimate goal - the conquest of Arabia. His great empire rapidly disintegrated, and following a series of civil wars, it was transformed into a number of states ruled by his generals. Hannibal met his nemesis years later when a Roman counter-invasion forced him back to Carthage (where he was defeated by Cipio) at the Battle of Zama. On the 14th of March, 44 BC, Julius Caesar was assassinated by 60 senatorial conspirators, an event which marked the beginning of the demise of the Roman Republic.

These and many other brilliant military masterminds continue to fascinate the world, and have since been a source of awe and inspiration not only to historians but military leaders of each era. Alexander the Great, Hannibal, and Caesar have been lauded, among others, as "gifted strategists" by men such as Napoleon Bonaparte and Duke of Wellington. In fact, military academies today still teach many of their brilliant tactics

But in the realm of war stories, there is but one great story which has always been omitted. It does not dwell on the victories of any one leader, but rather on the succession of victories by a lineage of great and noble warriors. The greatest army ever assembled in the history of mankind was an elite branch of the Polish cavalry. They quickly developed into one of the most formidable armies throughout Europe. During the Middle Ages they struck fear into the hearts of their enemies. Their conquests surpassed that of any predecessor and their military prowess was supreme and undefeated for over 200 years.

THEY WERE THE POLISH WINGED HUSSARS

The first recorded evidence of hussars can be found in Polish treasury books dated 1500. Initially these troops were considered only light cavalry and were composed mainly of foreign mercenaries, called "Racowie", (in Polish) meaning "from the Serbian state of Ras". By 1503 the Polish Sejm (Polish Parliament) decreed the formation of hussar units in the Kingdom of Poland. What began with a fledging regiment of three banners of Hungarian mercenaries quickly expanded as Polish citizens enlisted in droves. This Polish-Serbian-Hungarian regiment was at first a light cavalry and fought in wars during the early 16th century, most notably at Orsza (1514) and Obertyn (1541). However their participation was initially relegated to one of lesser importance. But by the mid-1500s during the "transitional period" they were transformed into heavier-armed hussars and it was not until the 1570s that the Polish Hussars finally came into their full glory. This was the Golden era, when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had become one of the largest, most powerful and most populated nation in all of Europe.

To describe the Polish Hussars as an elite branch of the cavalry would be an understatement. Most of them were recruited from wealthier Polish and Lithuanian nobility, and were referred to as the "szlachta". Each "towarzysz", or "comrade" was responsible in assembling his own "poczet" or retenue, and several of these were combined to form a hussar banner or company. In the meantime, during the 16th century, the hussars in Hungary had replaced their heavy wooden shields with full body metal armour. After the election of Stephen Batory as King of Poland (1575) and later acceptance of him as Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576), Batory re-organized the hussars of his Royal Guard to be equipped along the same lines as those of the Hungarian regiments, and equipped his men with long lances as their primary weapon. By the 1590s this transformation to heavy armor was all but complete and the Polish regiment became known as the "husaria".

King Stefan Batory
The Battle of Lubiszew was one of the most important battles fought during the reign of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was waged against Danzig, whose citizens refused to accept the election of Stephen Batory as King of the Commonwealth and thus ensued the two-year Danzig Rebellion. The battle took place on April 17, 1577 to the west of the town of Tczew (Dirschau), southeast of Gdansk on the left bank of the Vistula river. It was near Lubiszewo Lake and what is now the modern village of Lubiszewo Tczewskie. The Danzig (Gdańsk) army, led by German commander Hans Winckelburg von Kölln consisted of 10,000 to 12,000 soldiers, but only 800 were cavalry. In addition he brought 7 cannons, and 30 light cannons mounted on wagons. When the Polish Commander heard of the German advance on Lubiszewo, he led his soldiers in battle. Under his command were only 1,000 infantry and 1,300 cavalry. Despite their overwhelming numbers, the Danzig army was utterly defeated by the army of Jan Zborowskik. The Danzig army lost over half of their men: 4,420 killed, and 5,000 captured. The Polish army suffered 88 casualties, and 100 wounded. In the face of attack by Polish troops, the German soldiers retreated and fled in panic to take refuge behind their city walls. The siege had begun. While the battle did not end in a decisive victory, and war raged on, the city of Gdansk did eventually come to terms with the King by the end of the year.

Sigismund III Vassa
In 1576, following the death of King Stefan Batory, the Swedish King Sigismund III Vassa was elected to the Polish-Lithuanian throne, much to the discontent of Archduke Maximillian II of Austria who opposed the election claiming that he was the righful monarch. Thus ensued the War of the Polish Succession, by which Maximillian had hoped to defeat Poland. His attempt to conquer the city of Krakow failed. (During the Middle Ages, Krakow was regaled as the academic, cultural and artistic center of Poland. King Sigismund had arrived in Krakow on December 9 and was crowned on December 27th).

In the Battle of Byczyna (January 24, 1588) the Archduke led his army to positions east of Byczyna on the royal road leading into Poland. With him were 5,400 infantry and 600 cavalry and he felt confident that his position on the Hapsburg side of the border would be secure enough that the Polish army would not be likely to cross it. Polish soldiers under the command of Jan Zamoyski numbered only 2,300 infantry but had 3,700 cavalry.

Hetman Jan Zamoyski
While the exact position of the Polish cavalry cannot be ascertained, it is known that part of the Polish right flank had advanced in the dense mist and was able to encircle Maximillians left flank without being detected. Once the mist began to clear, Maximillian realized his predicament and could not retreat to Byczyna, so he ordered an attack. However his troops, misunderstanding his command, retreated instead. Under the command of Stanislaw Zolkiewski, the Polish left wing was able to disperse the enemy.

The Polish Hussars played a major part in this battle (even though the infantry was in the forefront).The battle was a bloody one and resulted in a rapid retreat by Maximillian's army, which took refuge in Byczyna. The Germans suffered very heavy casualties and lost their artillery and guns to the Poles who were poised to use them against the town. But before the Poles could attack, Maxmilian surrendered and was taken prisoner.

Battle of Kokenhausen

One of the greatest victories of the Polish Hussars took place on June 23, 1601 in the Battle of Kokenhausen. Despite overwhelming numbers, Polish forces were able to defeat the Swedish army. In early March about 2,000 Swedish troops led by Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm, had blockaded the town of Koknese (located on the Daugava River, between Riga and Daugavpils, currently in Latvia) and on the 1st of April had taken the town. However, they were unable to take the inner castle as it was defended by a Polish garrison. By May 11, Polish reinforcements arrived, and under the command of Krzysztof Mikolay "the Thunderbolt" Radziwill, laid siege to the town. By mid-June Polish ranks grew from less than 1,000 to over 4,000 troops. At the same time, Polish forces reinforced nearby strongholds and took to harassing the Swedish units. A Swedish relief force of about 5,000 soldiers arrived on the morning of June 23rd and attempted to break the Polish encirclement.

The field of battle was raised along the shore of the Daugava for a distance of approximately one and a half kilometers, to a width of about half a kilometer -with the side adjacent to the river being quite steep and gradually sloping towards the field. Gyllenhielm's army consisted of 900 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 17 cannons. Radiziwell gave orders to 500 of his men to maintain the siege, and he led the remaining troops afield consisting of 3,000 men, of which 400 were infantry, as well as 1,000 Polish hussars, and 9 cannons. The Poles successfully broke through the Swedish right flank and defeated their attempt to maneuver a counterattack.

The Battle of Kircholm, one of the major battles in the Polish-Swedish War, was fought on September 27, 1605, (or the 17th according to the Old calendar then in use in Protestant countries). The hussars launched a devastating charge against the enemy which ended the battle in the decisive victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces. It is remembered and celebrated to this day as one of the greatest triumphs of the Polish Hussars.. The battle was decided in all of 20 minutes!

On the eve of battle Swedish forces and that of the Commonwealth assembled near the town of Kircholm (which is about 18km SE of current day Riga, Latvia). The Swedish forces under the command of Charles IX numbered 10,800 men and 11 cannons, and were reinforced by several thousand German and Dutch mercenaries, as well as a few hundred Scots, greatly outnumbering the Commonwealth forces.

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
The Polish-Lithuanian army, led by the Great Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, consisted approximately of 1,300 infantry, that is, 1,040 pikemen and 260 musketeers, in addition to 2,600 cavalry, and only 5 cannons. Incidentally, the Polish Crown refused to finance its army, the funds having been obtained from the personal fortune of Chodkiewicz.

Even with numerical superiority the Swedes were at a severe disadvantage. Their troops were less well-trained (though armed with pistols and carbines), had a poorer breed of horses, and were tired after having marched throughout the night in torrential rains. Other the other hand, the Polish-Lithuanian forces were well-rested, confident that their cavalry was superbly trained and were heavily armed with lances. Most came from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and about 200 from the Polish Crown, the remainder of which were either mercenaries or close personal allies of Chodkiewicz. Among these forces were also a small number of Tatars and Polish-Lithuanian cossack horses used mostly for reconnaissance.

The Swedish soldiers were deployed in a checkboard formation in which infantry assembled into 7 or 8 widely spaced blocks, with intersecting fields of fire while the flanks were covered by Swedish and German cavalry, and cannons positioned ahead of the cavalry. In contrast, t he Polish-Lithuanian forces were deployed in the traditional format: the left wing, commanded by Dabrowa, was significantly stronger, while the right wing under the leadership of Pawel Jan Sapieha consisted of a smaller number of Hussars while at the centre were 300 Hussars led by Chodkiewicz, as well as a powerful formation of reiters dispatched by the Duke of Courland.

Despite the 1:3 disadvantage of Chodkiewicz forces, he used a feint to lure the Swedish forces from their high position. Thinking that the Commonwealth forces were retreating, the Swedish army was ordered to attack and began to give chase, spreading out their formations as they advanced. This is precisely what Chodkiewicz had planned and at the precise moment, the Commonwealth infantry launched a full-blown attack on the approaching enemy. At this point the Hussars assumed battle formations and charged on the Swedish left flank. At the same time about 300 Polish-Lithuanian Hussars charged the Swedish infantry in the centre to prevent them from interfering with their cavalry action on both of their flanks. Chodkiewicz then ordered his left wing and all reserves to attack the opposing right flank of the enemy.

Polish Hussars depicted in the Battle of Kircholm
The Swedish reiters were driven back on both wings and the infantry in the centre was attacked from three sides simultaneously. The Swedish forces turned and ran off in a panic, their whole army having collapsed. It was at this point that the Swedes had suffered their heaviest casualties. Defeat was devastating and complete. Swedish forces had lost more than half, and perhaps as much as two-thirds of their men. Their largest number of losses occurred while retreating in the dense forests and marshes: 8,000 dead or wounded, and 500 captured. The Poles and Lithuanians were fierce warriors and spared few opponents. Commonwealth losses were only about 100 dead and 200 wounded, though the Hussars had lost many of their trained battle horses. That they suffered fewer casualties was largely due to the incredible speed of their victories, not to mention that their horses had also been a shield and protection to the riders.

1630 painting of Battle of Kircholm, Pieter Snayers


The Battle of Klushino

The Battle of Klushino was fought during the Polish-Muscovite War between the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia. It took place on July 4, 1610 near the village of Klushino (near Smolensk).

Stanislaw Zolkiewski
Polish forces under the command of Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski numbered approximately 4,000 men, 80 percent of which consisted of the famous Winged Hussars. Russian forces, under the command of Dmitry Shuisky, Andrew Golitsyn and Danilo Mezetski, greatly outnumbered the Poles with 35,000 to 40,000 men. In addition they were reinforced by 10,000 Finnish and Swedish mercenary units under the command of Jacob De la Gardie as well as French, German and British regiments. Altogether the Russians had 48,000 men pitted againsted only 12,300 Poles. Moreover, the Russians were supported by 11 cannons, while the Poles had only two. Despite these greatly disproportionate numbers, the Polish-Lithuanian Hussars had a decisive victory over the Russians due largely to the military prowess and tactical skill of the the Polish Winged Hussars.

The Russian army, under the command of Prince Dmitry Shuisky, was heading towards the besieged fortress of Smolensk when they were intercepted by Polish forces. Soon after dawn the Poles attempted an attack but lost the element of surprise as the Russians had been able to fortify their positions in advance. In the opening stages of battle, the Polish Hussars engaged in repeated and ferocious attacks against Russian positions but without success. According to a witness, Samuel Maskiewicz, the hussars had charged about 8 or 10 times. The battle was extremely hard fought throughout the early part of the campaign, largely due to the barriers on the battlefield: it was divided by a high fence which permitted the Polish hussars to charge only through a narrow gap.

Nevertheless, so fierce were the hussars that many of the Russian foreign mercenaries began deserting and joined the Polish forces. That event, and the fact that a large number of native Russians also began deserting their posts, greatly diminished the morale of the remaining Russian forces. Eventually, the Russian cavalry launched a counterattack but were heavily mauled by the Polish hussars. After a brief melee, the Russians broke ranks and fled in panic, suffering extensive losses.

In the meantime, the remaining Russian forces maintained their position on the right wing but they too were overpowered by the Poles. The foreign troops on the left wing continued to put up a strong resistance for several hours but they retreated when the Polish infantry and cannons arrived. It was in their retreat that the Russian forces suffered the heaviest of casualties. There were however a large number of foreign troops who were able to make a relatively safe retreat under the protection of their long infantry pikes and find refuge in their camps. But in the meantime Polish-Lithuanian forces had surrounded two enemy camps as well as the mercenary camps in the forest. Though the Russians still had one fortified camp with able-fighting men, having larger numbers were no consolation to them in the face of the invincible Polish Hussars.

"Then when there were no more of the German infantrymen harassing us by the hedge, a few troops of our cavalry, joining together, charged the foreign cavalry with pikes - those who still had them - sabers and broadswords, They, deprived of protection of the Russian soldiers and cavalry, unable to resist, began escaping back into their camp. But there too our men rode after, and hitting and hacking drove them through their own camp." (from Zolkiewskis' memoirs )

Zolkiewski wielded his negotiating skills as deftly as his military tactics. He succeeded in procuring a surrender from the foreign mercenaries, who had already abandoned the Russians, as well as obtain their agreement to withdraw and not enlist again with the Russian Tsardom against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Several hundred of them chose to switch sides and voluntarily enlisted with the Commonwealth forces. The Polish-Lithuanian forces were able to achieve victory with ease, due largely to the poor structure of command and coordination of the Russian forces.

The main Russian army retreated whereupon Polish forces, already exhausted from battle, took to looting the Russian camps for their spoils of war - gold, silver, furs, military equipment, all Muscovite artillery, and the several war trophies such as flags and banners.

Following one victory, Zolkiewski turned towards Tsarovo, whose commander, Walujew, unilaterally surrendered after learning about the defeat of his comrades at Klushino. Shortly after battle, the Russian Tsar Vasily IV was ousted by the boyars and Zolkiewski and his troops marched into Moscow with little opposition. The high-ranking Russian boyars proclaimed Polish prince Wladyslaw Zygmuntowicz the new Tsar of Russia. Though he claimed the title from 1610 to 1634 he never assumed the Russian throne.

The Russian fortress of Smolensk was taken on June 3, 1611 following a 20-month long siege. The Polish forces suffered only 400 casualties, while the Russian casualties were 5,000 men killed or wounded.

The Battle of Trzciano, one of the many during the Polish-Swedish War, was fought on June 17, 1629. In addition to the Polish forces of Sigismund III, led by field crown hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski, were imperial troops sent from emperor Ferdinand II to aid the Polish king (Sigismund III). The latter troops were under the command of Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg and Ernst Georg Sparr. From June to August they fought against the Swedish forces commanded by King Gustav II Adolf, who supported the Protestant Lutherans of Germany and northern Europe. In the end the battle ended in a stalemate and acceptance of a truce by Sigismund III.

Sigismund III - of Swedish descent, and Catholic, was king of both Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He sought to maintain the crown of Sweden despite being rejected by the Swedish people.He also wanted the crown of Russia. As fate would have it, Sigismund's uncle Karl instead became king of Sweden, having assumed the throne with the assistance of Russia. However, Sigismund III's plans were considerably more ambitious. He attempted to gain control of the lucrative trade routes in the Baltic Sea and repeatedly requested that Swedish king Gustav Adolph abdicate his throne as a requisite for a truce and peace negotations. Gustav refused and battles and skirmishes ensued for a number of years.

Sigismund III Vasa received military support from emperor Ferdinand II, consisting of 5,000 infantry, and reiters. Reinforcements arrived in Prussia by late spring 1629 and led by General von Arnim and by Ernst Georg Sparr, set up camp near Graudenz (Grudziądz). Gustav Adolf had arrived in May. On June 17th, 1629 several skirmishes broke out at Honigfelde, situated south of Sztum. Gustav Adolph's army, positioned there, totalled 4,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry all poised to fight against the Imperial and Polish forces.

Hetman Koniecpolski
Polish forces led by Hetman Koniecpolski and by von Arnim and Sparr fought against the Swedish rearguard at the village of Honigfelde on the Stuhmer Heide (which is now Trzciano).

When Gustav II Adolf learned that the Polish-Imperial forces were in the proximity, he ordered the troops of the Count from the Rhine to continue marching. However, the Rhein count did not follow his orders and instead maintained his position at Honigfelde. In the meantime Koniecpolski had hordered his cossacks to advance through the forest NW of Sadowe, and his Hussars engaged in another flanking manoeuvre behinds the hills SE of Honigfelde. The last to reach the battlefied were Von Arnims reiters, which immediately formed into battle order to attack the Swedes from the front.

As the Polish forces approached, the Swedish leather cannons began firing, and the Rheincount ordered his arquebuisers to attack them. (Both cossacks and arquebuisers were mobile cavalry possessing good firepower but the Germans arquebuisers soon gained the upper hand and began pushing the outnumbered cossacks back towards the forest. At this moment, the Polish Hussars arrived from their flanking manoeuvres. A few of whom had fought the Swedish artillery (and the 60 to 80 musketeers supporting them) but the majority of Polish Hussars advanced and charged upon the engaged arquebuisers.

As the Hussars charged their flank and rear, the arquebuisers position quickly collapsed and they fled in disorder towards the north to join the rest of their army. Gustav II Adolf then arrived and helping to regroup the Rheincount, ordered a charge with the Battalion (Zakarias Paulis, and Reinhold Anreps Finnish squadrons). Much of the Battalion were so demoralised by the flight of the rearguard that they too joined the flight. Gustav II Adolf and the remaining cavalry were left alone to face the pursuing cossacks. The cossacks almost captured Gustav, but managed to escape when one of his men, Erik Soop, after having shot the attacker, threw off his harness over his head, and joined the other members of the cavalry in safety. As they approached the village of Straszewo, the situation became critical. Field marshall Wrangel was able to achieve only momentary advantage - allowing Gustav II Adolf enough time to reorganize some of the fleeing squadrons for re-entry into battle. Once again von Arnim's cuirassiers and Konieckpolski's hussars engaged in a full charge and once again the Swedes were thrown back. The Swedes proceeded to withdraw to Pulkowitz where the Gardescuirassiers and Streiff's squadron had taken up defensive positions, while their infantry and artillery continued towards Neudorf, taking up defensive positions at a river crossing. During their retreat, they were hotly pursued, but as they neared Pulkowitz, the Streiffs squadron began a counterattack, thereby relieving the beleaguered troops.

The Swedes and Poles had reached a deadlock, until von Arnim once again caught up with his cuirassiers and turned the battle against the Swedes. Again the Swedes withdrew, this time to Neudorf where their infantry and artillery had taken up positions. From there the Swedes were able to easily hold off the tired Polish-Imperial cavalry until nightfall. The next day was without event, and the Swedes were able to withdraw and make their way to Marienburg.

During the battle, 300 Poles were killed. Casualties suffered by the Swedish cavalry were higher, about 600 killed and 200 captured by the Poles, including many high ranking officers. Despite these losses the Swedish infantry remained somewhat intact.

Koniecpolski's troops launched further attacks on July 15th and on August 9th, both of which were repelled. The battle had come to an end, and a truce called.

In one of the most famous battles of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occurred on November 11, 1673 when forces under Hetman Jan Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Empire led by Hussain Pasha. It reversed the misfortunes of the previous year and permitted Sobieski to win the royal election and become King of Poland.

The Turks had under their command about 35,000 troops and 120 guns, but were no match for Polish-Lithuanian forces at 30,000 strong. In battle, the rockets of Kazimerz Siemienowicz were used against the enemy to great success. It lead to a resounding victory which allowed the Poles to abrigate the unfavorable Peace of Buczacz. It set the stage for the role Sobieski would play in the Battle of Vienna.

Kazimierz Siemienowicz
Kazimierz Siemienowicz was a Polish-Lithuanian general and military engineer and had excelled at artillery, gunsmith, and a pioneer in his time in rocketry. He published Artis Magnae Artilleriae in 1650 expounding on his development of rocketry and pyrotechnics, which by the way, remained a standard work in these field for over two hundred years.

Khotyn Fortress in what is now western Ukraine


Battle of Lwow

The Battle of Lwow took place near the city of Lwow, (currently in Western Ukraine) on August 24, 1675 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.

In the summer of 1675, 20,000 Turkish troops under the command of Ibrahim Shyshman crossed the Polish border and began a rapid march towards Lwów along the banks of the Dnister. The army was composed mainly of Turkish infantry and cavalry with numerous Tatar detachments. In order to face this assault, Polish King Jan III Sobieski commanded that his troops take positions in and around Lwów, while more reinforcements arrived. Upon hearing of the increased concentration of troops the Turkish commander sent a detachment of about 10,000 men of the Tatar forces to try to stop it. The Polish king assembled about 6,000 men, of whom 1,700 where Hussars. The remaining army consisted of infantry, dragoons and light cavalry.

By early morning on August 24th, Polish reconnaissance units observed Turkish columns quickly approaching the city of Lwow from the direction of the village of Gliniany (currently Hlyniany). The main road leading to the city passed through this area, a plain surrounded by swamps on both sides. Just before reaching Lwow the road passed through hilly terrain. Sobieski predicted that the Tatars would have to reach the road by either of the two narrow valleys located nearby.

So he decided to split his forces. One unit of 180 infantrymen, 200 light cavalry and several cannons were placed in the easternmost area of the ravines leading to the road to Lwów. Most of the heavy cavalry took the road itself, directly behind the valleys and the plain. The left flank of his forces was guarded by 200 Hussars positioned in the village of Zboiska. The remainder of the light cavalry and infantry guarded all the other approaches leading to Lwow, in case the Tatars outflanked the defenders and attacked the city from other directions. The remaining taborites and civilians were ordered to assemble on the hills surrounding the plains and were given spare lances by the Hussars in order to create the impression that the number of Polish troops was much higher.

The Tatars arrived on the plain at noon - precisely as Sobieski had predicted. The Turkish commander was convinced that a large group of Hussars were hiding in the woods on the hills, and he ordered his cavalry to reach the road through one of the ravines. The Polish infantry ambushed them and pushed the Turks back by a counter-attack of light cavalry. Meanwhile, Sobieski ordered all troops that had been guarding other approaches towards Lwow, to join the main forces advancing along the road.

Michal Kazimierz Radziwill

The Hussars, numbering 1700-strong were joined by three banners (that is, 300 men) of the Lithuanian light cavalry under the command of Hetman Michal Kazimierz Radziwill. Sobieski ordered the cavalry group to advance through the unguarded western gorge. The ravine was relatively narrow making it impossible for the Turks to outflank the Polish and Lithuanian cavalry while on the move. Upon reaching the plain, Sobieski commanded his troops to form a battle line and ordered a cavalry charge which he led personally.

In less than 30 minutes the battle was over. The Turkish lines were broken and its infantry surrounded, with their cavalry in full retreat.
The pursuit lasted until the dusk.





The Battle of Vienna was the most important of all the battles in Europe in the 17th century and marked a crucial turning point in the balance of power between European Christendom and the Ottoman Empire. For 300 years the struggle between the Ottoman and Habsburgs dynasties ensued as the Turks swept across the continent and conquered territories throughout southwestern Asia, North Africa and central and southeastern Europe. Vienna had long been coveted by the Ottoman Empire as the means to control the trade routes through Europe - from the Black Sea to Western Europe, and from the eastern Mediterranean to Germany, and with it the world.

Map of Vienna Fortifications

The first siege of Vienna took place in 1529 though the city fortifications only barely provided enough resistance from attack. However, the Turks abandoned their campaign only due to epidemics and an early winter. During the years leading up to the second siege, the Ottoman empire concentrated its efforts at logistical preparations, such as the repair and building of roads and bridges leading into Austria, as well as stocking logistical centers with ammunition and equipment. Meanwhile Vienna had already constructed a massive fortress around its city with eleven bastions and surrounded by a moat. It permitted the city to sustain itself for at least two months. Apparently, a state of peace existed between the Habsburgs and the Ottoman empire for 20 years before the Ottoman empire attempted another siege.

The second siege came on July 14th, 1683 when the Ottoman army invaded Vienna and on the same day demanded their surrender. The troops and citizens of Vienna refused to capitulate and instead began to burn down many of their houses in the effort to create a clearing from which they could easily fire upon the approaching Turks. However the Turkish commander Pasha was able to overcome this problem by ordering his troops to dig long lines of trenches into the city, thereby providing adequate cover for his advancing armies. The Ottomans had 300 good cannons, but none were able to penetrate the massive city walls, so instead they dug tunnels under the city walls and blew them up with large quantities of black gun powder. To further extend hardships, the Ottomans cut the food supply into Vienna. However the greatest danger to the Viennese troops was that of fatigue, so much so, that the commander Ernst Rudiger von Starhemberg ordered any soldier who was found asleep on watch to be shot.

By September 6th, the Polish army led by King Jan III Sobieski had crossed the Danube river 30 km north-west of Vienna at Tulln. There he joined the Imperial forces and troops from Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Franconia and Swabia. (French troops of Louis XIV declined to provide assistance, and used the opportunity to attacks cities in Alsace and parts of Germany.)

During the early part of September, over 5,000 Ottoman sappers descended upon the outer walls of the city, and one by one blew up large portions of the walls: the Burg bastion, the Lobel bastion, and the Burg ravelin, creating enormous gaps in the wall 12 m in width. (Ottoman forces totalled 30,000 to 40,000 men while the Habsburg-Polish armies totalled 84,400.) The Austrians desperately tried to circumvent the bombardment by digging their own tunnels to no avail. In a matter of days the Ottomans managed to breach the city walls and occupy the Burg ravelin and the Nieder Wall. Now the Austrians had to prepare for a fight in Vienna itself.

After a two month-long siege, the Ottomans attacked at 4:00 am on September 11, 1683, the battle continued on to the next day. Austrian and German forces moved forward. Pasha launched a counter-attack using most of his forces, planning to use his elite forces in a simultaneous attack on Vienna. His intention was to take Vienna before the Poles arrived, but time was running out. The Ottomans prepared one last detonation to breach the city walls, and resealed the tunnel. But later that afternoon, an Austrian "mole" detected the tunnel, entered and diffused the load just in time.

Meanwhile, above ground, the Polish infantry had already launched a massive assault on the Ottoman right flank and after twelve hours of fighting, the Poles held the high ground on the right. The Holy League cavalry had been watching the infantry battle for the entire day, all the while waiting for the order to attack. Finally at about 5:00 pm, King Sobieski gave the command and the cavalry attacked in four group formations. The first was Austrian-German, and the other three were Polish. Twenty thousand horsemen charged down those hills, a maneuver planned and led by the King of Poland. He was at the head of 3,000 Polish Winged Hussars. In the confusion, the cavalry headed straight for the Ottoman camps, while the remaining Vienna garrison sallied out of its defenses and joined in the assault.

The Ottoman troops were exhausted and demoralised following their failure to capture the city. The arrival of the cavalry, in particular the Polish Hussars, were instrumental in turning the tide of battle against the Ottomans, sending them into retreat to the south and east. With the intervention of the cavalry, it took less than three hours to win the Battle. It saved not only Vienna but all of Europe.
Casualties for the Ottoman forces were very high at least 15,000 killed and wounded, and at least 5,000 men captured. The Habsburg-Polish forces sufferred casualties of 4,500 killed and wounded.

After the battle, Sobieski paraphrased Julius Caesar's famous quote by saying "Venimus, Vidimus, Deus vincit "


On this day in Polish history…. June 27th

June 27th is a significant day in Polish history for two events that happened on this day, 48 years apart, in 1581 and in 1629. Both events are a source of great pride for all of us who are of Polish descent.

27 June 1581 — On this day in Mogilev, Russia, occurred one of the most lopsided battles in history. A force of about 1000 Polish troops including 200 elite Polish hussars (Cavalry) prevented a 30,000+ strong Tatar/Russian army from storming the city for seven hours. When 300 cavalry came in the aid of the hussars, along with villagers, the combined Polish force chased the enemy away, a total route. Later that year, Polish King Stephen Bathory invaded Muscovy and laid siege to the city of Pskov.

27 June 1629 — On this day occurred what is known as the Battle of Trzyciana. In short summary, the twice-larger forces of King Gustav II Adolf, by many historians considered to have been one of the most outstanding military leaders in history, was routed by the much smaller sized force let by Polish Hetman (military leader) Stanisław Koniecpolski, considered to be one of the greatest military leaders of the all time for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Their success in this battle effectively ended this particular religiously driven attempt by protestant Sweden to invade Europe. The battle was a stunning victory for Poland and her allies.


Remarkable Travels

Alexander the Great, whose empire spanned from the Ionian Sea to Asia Minor, was much lauded in life as after his death for being the greatest military mastermind the world had ever known. His desire was to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea". Hannibal was a Carthaginian military commander whose most famous battle was the Second Punic War (218 to 202 BC). He led his armies in a spectacular march across the Alps, conquered Italy and consolidated his control over the Roman heartland for the next fifteen years. And Julius Caesar, whose conquest of Gaul reached all the way to the North Sea. In 55 B.C. he conducted the first invasion of Britain, a victory which ranked him as the greatest military leader in the ancient world.

But fate took its turn with each one: when Alexander the Great attempted to invade India in 326 BC, a mutiny of his own troops forced him to turn back. He died three years later never having realized his ultimate goal - the conquest of Arabia. His great empire rapidly disintegrated, and following a series of civl wars, it was transformed into a number of states ruled by his generals. Hannibal met his nemesis years later when a Roman counter-invasion forced him back to Carthage (where he was defeated by Cipio) at the Battle of Zama. On the 14th of March, 44 BC, Julius Caesar was assassinated by 60 senatorial consipirators, an event which marked the beginning of the demise of the Roman Republic.

These and many other brilliant military masterminds continue to fascinate the world, and have since been a source of awe and inspiration not only to historians but military leaders of each era. Alexander the Great, Hannibal, and Caesar have been lauded, among others, as "gifted strategists" by men such as Napoleon Bonaporte and Duke of Wellington. In fact, military academies today still teach many of their brilliant tactics

But in the realm of war stories, there is but one great story which has always been omitted. It does not dwell on the victories of any one leader, but rather on the succession of victories by a lineage of great and noble warriors. The greatest army ever assembled in the history of mankind was an elite branch of the Polish cavalry. They quickly developed into one of the most formidable armies throughout Europe. During the Middle Ages they struck fear into the hearts of their enemies. Their conquests surpassed that of any predecessor and their military prowess was supreme and undefeated for over 200 years.

The Battle of Lubiszew was one of the most important battles fought during the reign of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was waged against Danzig, whose citizens refused to accept the election of Stephen Batory as King of the Commonwealth and thus ensued the two-year Danzig Rebellion. The battle took place on April 17, 1577 to the west of the town of Tczew (Dirschau), southeast of Gdansk on the left bank of the Vistula river. It was near Lubiszewo Lake and what is now the modern village of Lubiszewo Tczewskie. The Danzig (Gdańsk) army, led by German commander Hans Winckelburg von Kölln consisted of 10,000 to 12,000 soldiers, but only 800 were cavalry. In addition he brought 7 cannons, and 30 light cannons mounted on wagons. When the Polish Commander heard of the German advance on Lubiszewo, he led his soldiers in battle. Under his command were only 1,000 infantry and 1,300 cavalry. Despite their overwhelming numbers, the Danzig army was utterly defeated by the army of Jan Zborowskik. The Danzig army lost over half of their men: 4,420 killed, and 5,000 captured. The Polish army suffered 88 casualties, and 100 wounded. In the face of attack by Polish troops, the German soldiers retreated and fled in panic to take refuge behind their city walls. The siege had begun. While the battle did not end in a decisive victory, and war raged on, the city of Gdansk did eventually come to terms with the King by the end of the year.

In 1576, following the death of King Stefan Batory, the Swedish King Sigismund III Vassa was elected to the Polish-Lithuanian throne, much to the discontent of Archduke Maximillian II of Austria who opposed the election claiming that he was the righful monarch. Thus ensued the War of the Polish Succession, by which Maximillian had hoped to defeat Poland. His attempt to conquer the city of Krakow failed. (During the Middle Ages, Krakow was regaled as the academic, cultural and artistic center of Poland. King Sigismund had arrived in Krakow on December 9 and was crowned on December 27th).

In the Battle of Byczyna (January 24, 1588) the Archduke led his army to positions east of Byczyna on the royal road leading into Poland. With him were 5,400 infantry and 600 cavalry and he felt confident that his position on the Hapsburg side of the border would be secure enough that the Polish army would not be likely to cross it. Polish soldiers under the command of Jan Zamoyski numbered only 2,300 infantry but had 3,700 cavalry.

Hetman Jan Zamoyski
While the exact position of the Polish cavalry cannot be ascertained, it is known that part of the Polish right flank had advanced in the dense mist and was able to encircle Maximillians left flank without being detected. Once the mist began to clear, Maximillian realized his predicament and could not retreat to Byczyna, so he ordered an attack. However his troops, misunderstanding his command, retreated instead. Under the command of Stanislaw Zolkiewski, the Polish left wing was able to disperse the enemy.

The Polish Hussars played a major part in this battle (even though the infantry was in the forefront).The battle was a bloody one and resulted in a rapid retreat by Maximillian's army, which took refuge in Byczyna. The Germans suffered very heavy casualties and lost their artillery and guns to the Poles who were poised to use them against the town. But before the Poles could attack, Maxmilian surrendered and was taken prisoner.

The Battle of Kircholm, one of the major battles in the Polish-Swedish War, was fought on September 27, 1605, (or the 17th according to the Old calendar then in use in Protestant countries). The hussars launched a devastating charge against the enemy which ended the battle in the decisive victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces. It is remembered and celebrated to this day as one of the greatest triumphs of the Polish Hussars.. The battle was decided in all of 20 minutes!

On the eve of battle Swedish forces and that of the Commonwealth assembled near the town of Kircholm (which is about 18km SE of current day Riga, Latvia). The Swedish forces under the command of Charles IX numbered 10,800 men and 11 cannons, and were reinforced by several thousand German and Dutch mercenaries, as well as a few hundred Scots, greatly outnumbering the Commonwealth forces.

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz

The Polish-Lithuanian army, led by the Great Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, consisted approximately of 1,300 infantry, that is, 1,040 pikemen and 260 musketeers, in addition to 2,600 cavalry, and only 5 cannons. Incidentally, the Polish Crown refused to finance its army, the funds having been obtained from the personal fortune of Chodkiewicz.

Even with numerical superiority the Swedes were at a severe disadvantage. Their troops were less well-trained (though armed with pistols and carbines), had a poorer breed of horses, and were tired after having marched throughout the night in torrential rains. Other the other hand, the Polish-Lithuanian forces were well-rested, confident that their cavalry was superbly trained and were heavily armed with lances. Most came from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and about 200 from the Polish Crown, the remainder of which were either mercenaries or close personal allies of Chodkiewicz. Among these forces were also a small number of Tatars and Polish-Lithuanian cossack horses used mostly for reconnaissance.

The Swedish soldiers were deployed in a checkboard formation in which infantry assembled into 7 or 8 widely spaced blocks, with intersecting fields of fire while the flanks were covered by Swedish and German cavalry, and cannons positioned ahead of the cavalry. In contrast, t he Polish-Lithuanian forces were deployed in the traditional format: the left wing, commanded by Dabrowa, was significantly stronger, while the right wing under the leadership of Pawel Jan Sapieha consisted of a smaller number of Hussars while at the centre were 300 Hussars led by Chodkiewicz, as well as a powerful formation of reiters dispatched by the Duke of Courland.

Despite the 1:3 disadvantage of Chodkiewicz forces, he used a feint to lure the Swedish forces from their high position. Thinking that the Commonwealth forces were retreating, the Swedish army was ordered to attack and began to give chase, spreading out their formations as they advanced. This is precisely what Chodkiewicz had planned and at the precise moment, the Commonwealth infantry launched a full-blown attack on the approaching enemy. At this point the Hussars assumed battle formations and charged on the Swedish left flank. At the same time about 300 Polish-Lithuanian Hussars charged the Swedish infantry in the centre to prevent them from interfering with their cavalry action on both of their flanks. Chodkiewicz then ordered his left wing and all reserves to attack the opposing right flank of the enemy.
Polish Hussars depicted in the Battle of Kircholm
The Swedish reiters were driven back on both wings and the infantry in the centre was attacked from three sides simultaneously. The Swedish forces turned and ran off in a panic, their whole army having collapsed. It was at this point that the Swedes had suffered their heaviest casualties. Defeat was devastating and complete. Swedish forces had lost more than half, and perhaps as much as two-thirds of their men. Their largest number of losses occurred while retreating in the dense forests and marshes: 8,000 dead or wounded, and 500 captured. The Poles and Lithuanians were fierce warriors and spared few opponents. Commonwealth losses were only about 100 dead and 200 wounded, though the Hussars had lost many of their trained battle horses. That they suffered fewer casualties was largely due to the incredible speed of their victories, not to mention that their horses had also been a shield and protection to the riders.
1630 painting of Battle of Kircholm, Pieter Snayers

Stanislaw Zolkiewski
Polish forces under the command of Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski numbered approximately 4,000 men, 80 percent of which consisted of the famous Winged Hussars. Russian forces, under the command of Dmitry Shuisky, Andrew Golitsyn and Danilo Mezetski, greatly outnumbered the Poles with 35,000 to 40,000 men. In addition they were reinforced by 10,000 Finnish and Swedish mercenary units under the command of Jacob De la Gardie as well as French, German and British regiments. Altogether the Russians had 48,000 men pitted againsted only 12,300 Poles. Moreover, the Russians were supported by 11 cannons, while the Poles had only two. Despite these greatly disproportionate numbers, the Polish-Lithuanian Hussars had a decisive victory over the Russians due largely to the military prowess and tactical skill of the the Polish Winged Hussars.

The Russian army, under the command of Prince Dmitry Shuisky, was heading towards the besieged fortress of Smolensk when they were intercepted by Polish forces. Soon after dawn the Poles attempted an attack but lost the element of surprise as the Russians had been able to fortify their positions in advance. In the opening stages of battle, the Polish Hussars engaged in repeated and ferocious attacks against Russian positions but without success. According to a witness, Samuel Maskiewicz, the hussars had charged about 8 or 10 times. The battle was extremely hard fought throughout the early part of the campaign, largely due to the barriers on the battlefield: it was divided by a high fence which permitted the Polish hussars to charge only through a narrow gap.

Nevertheless, so fierce were the hussars that many of the Russian foreign mercenaries began deserting and joined the Polish forces. That event, and the fact that a large number of native Russians also began deserting their posts, greatly diminished the morale of the remaining Russian forces. Eventually, the Russian cavalry launched a counterattack but were heavily mauled by the Polish hussars. After a brief melee, the Russians broke ranks and fled in panic, suffering extensive losses.

"Then when there were no more of the German infantrymen harassing us by the hedge, a few troops of our cavalry, joining together, charged the foreign cavalry with pikes - those who still had them - sabers and broadswords, They, deprived of protection of the Russian soldiers and cavalry, unable to resist, began escaping back into their camp. But there too our men rode after, and hitting and hacking drove them through their own camp." (from Zolkiewskis' memoirs)

Zolkiewski wielded his negotiating skills as deftly as his military tactics. He succeeded in procuring a surrender from the foreign mercenaries, who had already abandoned the Russians, as well as obtain their agreement to withdraw and not enlist again with the Russian Tsardom against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Several hundred of them chose to switch sides and voluntarily enlisted with the Commonwealth forces. The Polish-Lithuanian forces were able to achieve victory with ease, due largely to the poor structure of command and coordination of the Russian forces.

The main Russian army retreated whereupon Polish forces, already exhausted from battle, took to looting the Russian camps for their spoils of war - gold, silver, furs, military equipment, all Muscovite artillery, and the several war trophies such as flags and banners.

Following one victory, Zolkiewski turned towards Tsarovo, whose commander, Walujew, unilaterally surrendered after learning about the defeat of his comrades at Klushino. Shortly after battle, the Russian Tsar Vasily IV was ousted by the boyars and Zolkiewski and his troops marched into Moscow with little opposition. The high-ranking Russian boyars proclaimed Polish prince Wladyslaw Zygmuntowicz the new Tsar of Russia. Though he claimed the title from 1610 to 1634 he never assumed the Russian throne.

The Russian fortress of Smolensk was taken on June 3, 1611 following a 20-month long siege. The Polish forces suffered only 400 casualties, while the Russian casualties were 5,000 men killed or wounded.

The Battle of Trzciano, one of the many during the Polish-Swedish War, was fought on June 17, 1629. In addition to the Polish forces of Sigismund III, led by field crown hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski, were imperial troops sent from emperor Ferdinand II to aid the Polish king (Sigismund III). The latter troops were under the command of Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg and Ernst Georg Sparr. From June to August they fought against the Swedish forces commanded by King Gustav II Adolf, who supported the Protestant Lutherans of Germany and northern Europe. In the end the battle ended in a stalemate and acceptance of a truce by Sigismund III.

Sigismund III - of Swedish descent, and Catholic, was king of both Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He sought to maintain the crown of Sweden despite being rejected by the Swedish people.He also wanted the crown of Russia. As fate would have it, Sigismund's uncle Karl instead became king of Sweden, having assumed the throne with the assistance of Russia. However, Sigismund III's plans were considerably more ambitious. He attempted to gain control of the lucrative trade routes in the Baltic Sea and repeatedly requested that Swedish king Gustav Adolph abdicate his throne as a requisite for a truce and peace negotations. Gustav refused and battles and skirmishes ensued for a number of years.

Sigismund III Vasa received military support from emperor Ferdinand II, consisting of 5,000 infantry, and reiters. Reinforcements arrived in Prussia by late spring 1629 and led by General von Arnim and by Ernst Georg Sparr, set up camp near Graudenz (Grudziądz). Gustav Adolf had arrived in May. On June 17th, 1629 several skirmishes broke out at Honigfelde, situated south of Sztum. Gustav Adolph's army, positioned there, totalled 4,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry all poised to fight against the Imperial and Polish forces.

Polish forces led by Hetman Koniecpolski and by von Arnim and Sparr fought against the Swedish rearguard at the village of Honigfelde on the Stuhmer Heide (which is now Trzciano).

When Gustav II Adolf learned that the Polish-Imperial forces were in the proximity, he ordered the troops of the Count from the Rhine to continue marching. However, the Rhein count did not follow his orders and instead maintained his position at Honigfelde. In the meantime Koniecpolski had hordered his cossacks to advance through the forest NW of Sadowe, and his Hussars engaged in another flanking manoeuvre behinds the hills SE of Honigfelde. The last to reach the battlefied were Von Arnims reiters, which immediately formed into battle order to attack the Swedes from the front.

As the Polish forces approached, the Swedish leather cannons began firing, and the Rheincount ordered his arquebuisers to attack them. (Both cossacks and arquebuisers were mobile cavalry possessing good firepower but the Germans arquebuisers soon gained the upper hand and began pushing the outnumbered cossacks back towards the forest. At this moment, the Polish Hussars arrived from their flanking manoeuvres. A few of whom had fought the Swedish artillery (and the 60 to 80 musketeers supporting them) but the majority of Polish Hussars advanced and charged upon the engaged arquebuisers.

As the Hussars charged their flank and rear, the arquebuisers position quickly collapsed and they fled in disorder towards the north to join the rest of their army. Gustav II Adolf then arrived and helping to regroup the Rheincount, ordered a charge with the Battalion (Zakarias Paulis, and Reinhold Anreps Finnish squadrons). Much of the Battalion were so demoralised by the flight of the rearguard that they too joined the flight. Gustav II Adolf and the remaining cavalry were left alone to face the pursuing cossacks. The cossacks almost captured Gustav, but managed to escape when one of his men, Erik Soop, after having shot the attacker, threw off his harness over his head, and joined the other members of the cavalry in safety. As they approached the village of Straszewo, the situation became critical. Field marshall Wrangel was able to achieve only momentary advantage - allowing Gustav II Adolf enough time to reorganize some of the fleeing squadrons for re-entry into battle. Once again von Arnim's cuirassiers and Konieckpolski's hussars engaged in a full charge and once again the Swedes were thrown back. The Swedes proceeded to withdraw to Pulkowitz where the Gardescuirassiers and Streiff's squadron had taken up defensive positions, while their infantry and artillery continued towards Neudorf, taking up defensive positions at a river crossing. During their retreat, they were hotly pursued, but as they neared Pulkowitz, the Streiffs squadron began a counterattack, thereby relieving the beleaguered troops.

The Swedes and Poles had reached a deadlock, until von Arnim once again caught up with his cuirassiers and turned the battle against the Swedes. Again the Swedes withdrew, this time to Neudorf where their infantry and artillery had taken up positions. From there the Swedes were able to easily hold off the tired Polish-Imperial cavalry until nightfall. The next day was without event, and the Swedes were able to withdraw and make their way to Marienburg.

During the battle, 300 Poles were killed. Casualties suffered by the Swedish cavalry were higher, about 600 killed and 200 captured by the Poles, including many high ranking officers. Despite these losses the Swedish infantry remained somewhat intact.

Koniecpolski's troops launched further attacks on July 15th and on August 9th, both of which were repelled. The battle had come to an end, and a truce called.

In one of the most famous battles of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occurred on November 11, 1673 when forces under Hetman Jan Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Empire led by Hussain Pasha. It reversed the misfortunes of the previous year and permitted Sobieski to win the royal election and become King of Poland.

The Turks had under their command about 35,000 troops and 120 guns, but were no match for Polish-Lithuanian forces at 30,000 strong. In battle, the rockets of Kazimerz Siemienowicz were used against the enemy to great success. It lead to a resounding victory which allowed the Poles to abrigate the unfavorable Peace of Buczacz. It set the stage for the role Sobieski would play in the Battle of Vienna.

The Battle of Lwow took place near the city of Lwow, (currently in Western Ukraine) on August 24, 1675 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.

In the summer of 1675, 20,000 Turkish troops under the command of Ibrahim Shyshman crossed the Polish border and began a rapid march towards Lwów along the banks of the Dnister. The army was composed mainly of Turkish infantry and cavalry with numerous Tatar detachments. In order to face this assault, Polish King Jan III Sobieski commanded that his troops take positions in and around Lwów, while more reinforcements arrived. Upon hearing of the increased concentration of troops the Turkish commander sent a detachment of about 10,000 men of the Tatar forces to try to stop it. The Polish king assembled about 6,000 men, of whom 1,700 where Hussars. The remaining army consisted of infantry, dragoons and light cavalry.

By early morning on August 24th, Polish reconnaissance units observed Turkish columns quickly approaching the city of Lwow from the direction of the village of Gliniany (currently Hlyniany). The main road leading to the city passed through this area, a plain surrounded by swamps on both sides. Just before reaching Lwow the road passed through hilly terrain. Sobieski predicted that the Tatars would have to reach the road by either of the two narrow valleys located nearby.

So he decided to split his forces. One unit of 180 infantrymen, 200 light cavalry and several cannons were placed in the easternmost area of the ravines leading to the road to Lwów. Most of the heavy cavalry took the road itself, directly behind the valleys and the plain. The left flank of his forces was guarded by 200 Hussars positioned in the village of Zboiska. The remainder of the light cavalry and infantry guarded all the other approaches leading to Lwow, in case the Tatars outflanked the defenders and attacked the city from other directions. The remaining taborites and civilians were ordered to assemble on the hills surrounding the plains and were given spare lances by the Hussars in order to create the impression that the number of Polish troops was much higher.

The Tatars arrived on the plain at noon - precisely as Sobieski had predicted. The Turkish commander was convinced that a large group of Hussars were hiding in the woods on the hills, and he ordered his cavalry to reach the road through one of the ravines. The Polish infantry ambushed them and pushed the Turks back by a counter-attack of light cavalry. Meanwhile, Sobieski ordered all troops that had been guarding other approaches towards Lwow, to join the main forces advancing along the road.

The Hussars, numbering 1700-strong were joined by three banners (that is, 300 men) of the Lithuanian light cavalry under the command of Hetman Michal Kazimierz Radziwill. Sobieski ordered the cavalry group to advance through the unguarded western gorge. The ravine was relatively narrow making it impossible for the Turks to outflank the Polish and Lithuanian cavalry while on the move. Upon reaching the plain, Sobieski commanded his troops to form a battle line and ordered a cavalry charge which he led personally.

In less than 30 minutes the battle was over. The Turkish lines were broken and its infantry surrounded, with their cavalry in full retreat.
The pursuit lasted until the dusk.

Map of Vienna Fortifications

The first siege of Vienna took place in 1529 though the city fortifications only barely provided enough resistance from attack. However, the Turks abandoned their campaign only due to epidemics and an early winter. During the years leading up to the second siege, the Ottoman empire concentrated its efforts at logistical preparations, such as the repair and building of roads and bridges leading into Austria, as well as stocking logistical centers with ammunition and equipment. Meanwhile Vienna had already constructed a massive fortress around its city with eleven bastions and surrounded by a moat. It permitted the city to sustain itself for at least two months. Apparently, a state of peace existed between the Habsburgs and the Ottoman empire for 20 years before the Ottoman empire attempted another siege.

The second siege came on July 14th, 1683 when the Ottoman army invaded Vienna and on the same day demanded their surrender. The troops and citizens of Vienna refused to capitulate and instead began to burn down many of their houses in the effort to create a clearing from which they could easily fire upon the approaching Turks. However the Turkish commander Pasha was able to overcome this problem by ordering his troops to dig long lines of trenches into the city, thereby providing adequate cover for his advancing armies. The Ottomans had 300 good cannons, but none were able to penetrate the massive city walls, so instead they dug tunnels under the city walls and blew them up with large quantities of black gun powder. To further extend hardships, the Ottomans cut the food supply into Vienna. However the greatest danger to the Viennese troops was that of fatigue, so much so, that the commander Ernst Rudiger von Starhemberg ordered any soldier who was found asleep on watch to be shot.

By September 6th, the Polish army led by King Jan III Sobieski had crossed the Danube river 30 km north-west of Vienna at Tulln. There he joined the Imperial forces and troops from Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Franconia and Swabia. (French troops of Louis XIV declined to provide assistance, and used the opportunity to attacks cities in Alsace and parts of Germany.)

During the early part of September, over 5,000 Ottoman sappers descended upon the outer walls of the city, and one by one blew up large portions of the walls: the Burg bastion, the Lobel bastion, and the Burg ravelin, creating enormous gaps in the wall 12 m in width. (Ottoman forces totalled 30,000 to 40,000 men while the Habsburg-Polish armies totalled 84,400.) The Austrians desperately tried to circumvent the bombardment by digging their own tunnels to no avail. In a matter of days the Ottomans managed to breach the city walls and occupy the Burg ravelin and the Nieder Wall. Now the Austrians had to prepare for a fight in Vienna itself.

After a two month-long siege, the Ottomans attacked at 4:00 am on September 11, 1683, the battle continued on to the next day. Austrian and German forces moved forward. Pasha launched a counter-attack using most of his forces, planning to use his elite forces in a simultaneous attack on Vienna. His intention was to take Vienna before the Poles arrived, but time was running out. The Ottomans prepared one last detonation to breach the city walls, and resealed the tunnel. But later that afternoon, an Austrian "mole" detected the tunnel, entered and diffused the load just in time.

Meanwhile, above ground, the Polish infantry had already launched a massive assault on the Ottoman right flank and after twelve hours of fighting, the Poles held the high ground on the right. The Holy League cavalry had been watching the infantry battle for the entire day, all the while waiting for the order to attack. Finally at about 5:00 pm, King Sobieski gave the command and the cavalry attacked in four group formations. The first was Austrian-German, and the other three were Polish. Twenty thousand horsemen charged down those hills, a maneuver planned and led by the King of Poland. He was at the head of 3,000 Polish Winged Hussars. In the confusion, the cavalry headed straight for the Ottoman camps, while the remaining Vienna garrison sallied out of its defenses and joined in the assault.

The Ottoman troops were exhausted and demoralised following their failure to capture the city. The arrival of the cavalry, in particular the Polish Hussars, were instrumental in turning the tide of battle against the Ottomans, sending them into retreat to the south and east. With the intervention of the cavalry, it took less than three hours to win the Battle. It saved not only Vienna but all of Europe.
Casualties for the Ottoman forces were very high at least 15,000 killed and wounded, and at least 5,000 men captured. The Habsburg-Polish forces sufferred casualties of 4,500 killed and wounded.

After the battle, Sobieski paraphrased Julius Caesar's famous quote by saying "Venimus, Vidimus, Deus vincit"


Wreck of the Batavia

Almost 400 years ago the Dutch East Indiaman Batavia wrecked near a small group of islands off Australia&rsquos western coast.

What followed remains one of the most bizarre and disturbing incidents in the European history of Australia.

Of the 200 people who survived the wreck, only about 70 would still be alive three months later. Two of these would become Australia&rsquos first, albeit unwilling, European settlers.

Torrentius, heretical Dutch painter and philosopher:

All religions restrict pleasure. In doing so they are contrary to the will of God, who put us on earth that we might, during our brief existence, enjoy without hindrance everything that might give us pleasure.

Engraving of Beacon Island from the Ongeluckige Voyagie, van’t schip Batavia [Unlucky Voyage of the Ship Batavia]

VOC and the Batavia

The Dutch East India Company, or Vereenigde Oost-indische Compagnie (VOC), was the greatest trade organisation of the age.

Throughout much of the 17th and 18th centuries, it dominated the Indian Ocean spice trade, especially around the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).

Those with shares in the VOC became immensely rich, while for ambitious young men the voyage to Batavia (now Jakarta) offered an opportunity to make a fortune.

The success and attitude of the VOC reflected the Dutch proverb: &lsquoJesus Christ is good, but Trade is better.'

However, the perilous voyage from the Netherlands to Batavia took as long as eight months. Those who survived scurvy and poor food and water then had to face tropical diseases such as malaria once they arrived in the East Indies. The likelihood of dying from such diseases before the end of your first year was one in four.

Launched in 1628, the 150-foot Batavia was the pride of the VOC fleet. Laden with silver, she set sail on her maiden voyage from the Dutch port of Texel on 28 October that year as the flagship of a fleet of eight VOC vessels.

In keeping with VOC practice, the Batavia had two commanders: a senior merchant, or commandeur, who had overall command of the fleet and a skipper responsible for the ship itself. On the Batavia, these men were Francisco Pelsaert and Ariaen Jacobsz respectively.

Problems inherent in a dual command structure were in this case exacerbated by the fact that Jacobsz and Pelsaert already hated each other due to a dispute in India two years previously.

There were about 330 people aboard the Batavia, among them 180 sailors, about 100 mercenaries, and a number of relatively wealthy passengers, including the 27-year-old Lucretia van den Mylen who was joining her husband in Batavia.

Also on board was Pelsaert&rsquos deputy Jeronimus Cornelisz, a former apothecary who had joined the VOC and signed up for the voyage to avoid being persecuted for his adherence to the heretical values of the painter Torrentius.

Cornelisz befriended Jacobsz and together the two men began plotting a mutiny and recruiting accomplices, presumably tempted by the Batavia&rsquos valuable cargo. Their plans became more feasible when the Batavia separated from the rest of the fleet during a storm off the Cape of Good Hope.

Over the next few weeks they worked on fomenting discontent among the crew. But disaster struck before they could carry out the mutiny.

Wreck of the Batavia

In the small hours of 4 June 1629 the Batavia smashed into Morning Reef just off the Houtman Abrolhos, an island chain 60 kilometres west of what is now Geraldton in Western Australia.

As with all VOC ships at the time, the Batavia had sailed before the prevailing winds known as the Roaring Forties east across the Indian Ocean. Lacking any accurate means of determining longitude, they relied on dead reckoning to decide when to turn north for Batavia. The coast of Western Australia is strewn with wrecks as a result.

When the Batavia hit the reef, discipline collapsed. Sailors traditionally viewed shipwreck as a death sentence. Few could swim and because it was night, no one knew that in this case they were near the relative safety of an island. About 100 people died in the immediate aftermath of the collision.

However, at daybreak the crew used the Batavia&rsquos longboat to get about 180 people and some food and water onto a waterless islet now known as Beacon Island, two kilometres away. The sailors and officers settled on another island nearby. A handful of people remained on the foundering ship.

Ends of the earth

Even today, the Abrolhos islands are very isolated. Four hundred years ago, their remoteness must have seemed lunar.

The Batavia wrecked among the northernmost of the archipelago&rsquos three groups. This, the Wallabi group, comprises a handful of sandy islands spread over an area 17 by 10 kilometres.

Over the next few days Pelsaert and Jacobsz used the longboat to hastily inspect the group&rsquos other islands. Having found neither water nor food, the two men then made the controversial decision to look for water on the Australian mainland or, failing that, get help from Batavia some 3000 kilometres away.

Pelsaert and Jacobsz left in the middle of the night, taking with them the 40 or so people on their island, mostly sailors along with all the Batavia&rsquos officers.

The Beacon Island survivors woke to find themselves abandoned and alone.

Absolute power

However, not all the VOC officers had left the islands. Cornelisz remained on the Batavia, only abandoning it when the ship sunk under him nine days after it struck the reef.

Staggering ashore on Beacon Island, Cornelisz found 180 desperate, dispirited people looking for a leader.

Cornelisz discovered that an accomplice had revealed his mutiny plot to Pelsaert. It would have been clear to him that any rescue by Pelsaert would mean a death sentence. His only chance lay in taking control of the islands and seizing any rescue ship

Cornelisz began by restoring order and rationing supplies. In recent days, it had rained and some of the Batavia&rsquos food had washed ashore along with canvas the survivors used for tents.

Before his arrival, the survivors had formed a council, which Cornelisz now chaired. He replaced its members with his own men &ndash a coterie of thugs who had been his accomplices in the mutiny plot.

He gathered all the weapons and ensured only he and his men had access to them. He also took control of the makeshift boats and rafts the survivors had made.

Cornelisz then split the population, despatching some to two nearby islands. His main concern was to remove the threat posed by the well-disciplined mercenaries. These he sent to a distant island (now called West Wallabi), ostensibly to find water.

His men ferried the 22 soldiers, under the command of a man called Wiebbe Hayes, the eight kilometres to the island, relieved them of their weapons and left them marooned.

Cornelisz now instigated a drawn-out massacre.

He began by ordering his men to slaughter the entire population of one of the nearby islands. Over the next few weeks, the killing continued on Beacon Island itself. The strongest were killed at night, their throats cut. Others were taken out on rafts and drowned. The sick and lame were also targeted.

Then people were murdered at random, with many forced to kill other survivors to save their own lives. Total obedience was a person&rsquos only chance of survival. Cornelisz&rsquos men raped any woman they chose.

Hayes&rsquos mercenaries

In mid-July Cornelisz ordered the massacre of those on the other nearby island, but several escaped to West Wallabi on makeshift rafts. Forewarned, Hayes then used coral blocks and flotsam to fortify the island and make primitive weapons.

Fortunately for them, and unknown to Cornelisz, Hayes and his men had found not only water on the island but small wallabies, which they were able to kill and eat.

Cornelisz recognised that Hayes and his men were a real threat as they could warn any rescue ship. So in early August he made two attempts to storm West Wallabi. He was repelled on both occasions. On the third attempt, Cornelisz was captured and his three lieutenants killed.

Wouter Looes now took command of the mutineers and on 17 September attacked West Wallabi again. This time he used the mutineers&rsquo two muskets which Cornelisz had been reserving for use against a rescue ship. With these Looes was able to kill three of Hayes&rsquo men. But with the defeat of the mercenaries imminent, a sail was sighted on the horizon.

Fate of the survivors

Pelsaert and Jacobsz had failed to find water or food on the mainland and so had made the long voyage to Batavia. The 33-day journey was a remarkable feat of navigation, particularly as everyone aboard survived.

Once in Batavia, Pelsaert quickly arranged a rescue ship, the Sardam, but it took him seven weeks to make the return voyage to the Abrolhos.

When they saw Pelsaert&rsquos ship both Looes and Hayes each sent a small boat to intercept the Sardam. The first to get there would be able to state their version of events. The fate of the remaining survivors, and those on board the Sardam, depended on the outcome of a rowing race.

Hayes and his men got to Pelsaert first.

Retribution for the mutineers

Pelsaert arrested the men in Looes&rsquos boat and launched a raid on Beacon Island. The mutineers quickly surrendered.

Pelsaert built a jail and tortured the mutineers until they all confessed. Cornelisz and his six closest accomplices were hanged on makeshift gibbets. Pelsaert then spent six weeks salvaging most of the silver from the wreck of the Batavia, before taking the 16 remaining mutineers and 70 survivors to Batavia.

The only mutineers to escape execution were Looes and a cabin boy called Pelgrom, whom Pelsaert decided to maroon on the Australian mainland. Their fate is unknown.

After Batavia

Of the 330 or so people who left the Netherlands on the Batavia, only a third would arrive in the East Indies. Of those who had died, about 125 men, women and children had been murdered by Cornelisz&rsquos men.

The 16 mutineers taken to Batavia were tried, tortured and executed.

For his role in the Abrolhos incident, Hayes was promoted.

Lucretia van den Mylen, who had been forced to become Cornelisz&rsquos concubine, arrived in Batavia to find that her husband had died. She later married an army officer and returned to Amsterdam where she lived to the age of 81.

Having been arrested for negligence soon after arriving in Batavia, Jacobz is believed to have died in jail. Pelsaert died of disease in September 1630, his reputation tarnished by the events off Western Australia.

The wreck of the Batavia was found in 1963. Much of the ship was salvaged and is on display at the Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle.

The remnants of Hayes&rsquos fort &ndash Australia&rsquos first European structure &ndash can still be found on West Wallabi. As many as 80 skeletons are believed to lie in the sands of Beacon Island.

Significance of the wreck of the Batavia

The events on the Abrolhos soon became well-known, at least among the Dutch.

An account of the incident based on Pelsaert&rsquos journals, Ongeluckige Voyagie, published in 1647, was popular enough to warrant eight reprints. It certainly confirmed in the minds of Dutch mariners that the coast of New Holland was utterly unforgiving and should be avoided at all costs.

It is interesting that this bizarre and grotesque bloodbath was among the first events in the history of European contact with Australia &ndash one that is usually overlooked in Australia&rsquos retelling of its history.

It is also noteworthy that Looes and Pelgrom, along with other 17th- and 18th-century shipwreck survivors were, in a sense, the first Europeans to settle in Australia, however unofficial, sporadic and short-lived their presence might have been.


Watch the video: Second Armistice at Compiègne. Wikipedia audio article