January 31, 2014 Day 11 of the Sixth Year - History

January 31, 2014 Day 11 of the Sixth Year - History


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President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden provide encouragement to Erick Varela, who was about to introduce the President, prior to an event to outline new efforts to help the long-term unemployed, in the Green Room of the White House, Jan. 31, 2014


Activities (3)

Old Calendar: St. John Bosco, confessor

St. John Bosco was the founder of the Salesian Society, named in honor of St. Francis de Sales, and of the Daughters of Mary, Help of Christians. His lifework was the welfare of young boys and girls, hence his title, "Apostle of Youth." He had no formal system or theory of education. His methods centered on persuasion, authentic religiosity, and love for young people. He was an enlightened educator and innovator.

St. John Bosco
John Bosco was born near Castelnuovo in the archdiocese of Turin, Italy, in 1815. His father died when John was only two years old and it was his mother Margaret who provided him with a good humanistic and Christian education. His early years were financially difficult but at the age of twenty he entered the major seminary, thanks to the financial help received from Louis Guala, founder and rector of the ecclesiastical residence St. Francis of Assisi in Turin. John Bosco was ordained a priest on June 5, 1846, and with the help of John Borel he founded the oratory of St. Francis de Sales.

At this time the city of Turin was on the threshold of the industrial revolution and as a result there were many challenges and problems, especially for young men. Gifted as he was as an educator and a leader, Don Bosco formulated a system of education based on "reason, religion and kindness." In spite of the criticism and violent attacks of the anti-clericals, he conducted workshops for the tradesmen and manual laborers, schools of arts and sciences for young workers, and schools of the liberal arts for those preparing for the priesthood. In 1868 there were 800 students involved in this educational system. To ensure the continuation of his work, Don Bosco founded the Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians), which was approved in 1869. Also, with the help of Sister Mary Dominic Mazzarello, he founded the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Auxiliatrix.

In 1875 a wave of emigration to Latin America began, and this prompted the inauguration of the Salesian missionary apostolate. Don Bosco became a traveller throughout Europe, seeking funds for the missions. Some of the reports referred to him as "the new St. Vincent de Paul." He also found time to write popular catechetical pamphlets, which were distributed throughout Italy, as was his Salesian Bulletin. This great apostle of youth died on January 31, 1888, and was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1934. Pope John Paul II named him "teacher and father to the young."

— Excerpted from Saints of the Roman Calendar by Enzo Lodi

Patron: Apprentices boys editors Mexican young people laborers schoolchildren students young people.

    St. John Bosco at a young age learned how to juggle and do other tricks to attract children to him. This provided opportunities for him to give catechesis to these children. Think of different activities that you could do to attract children—perhaps juggling, putting on puppet shows, storybook time—and use that opportunity to teach a virtue, catechism lesson, or just to be a good example. Good clean fun or a wholesome activity is a lesson in itself in a world where there is so much corruption.


2014 Year of Horse

Horse is one of Chinese favorite animals. Horse provides people quick transportation before automobiles, so people can quickly reach their destinations. Horse even can help people to win the battle. Therefore Horse is a symbol of traveling, competition and victory. That's why Horse is connected to speedy success in China.

Horses like to compete with others. They pursuit for their freedom, passion and leadership. That implies that people will have busy schedule for their goals in the year of Horse. Horse hour of Chinese Horoscopes is from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M. Sunshine generates lots of heat during the Horse hour. Therefore, horse is connected to heat, fire and red. Horses like the social activities, because horses like show off themselves. Since horse is a social animal and red is also connected to love, therefore. horse is treated as a Romantic Star in Chinese Horoscope.

Dragon and Horse are auspicious symbols to Chinese. Chinese said that the best flyer is the sky is Dragon and the best runner on the ground is Horse. Dragon and Horse are the symbols of high-rank, outstanding, noble and leadership. Chinese history book said Horse has 30 percents of Dragon personality. More than 8-foot tall Horse is called Dragon-Horse. There was a Dragon-Horse jumped out of the Yellow River almost 5000 years ago. Fu Xi saw that Dragon-Horse had a diagram on its horseback, which inspired him to invent the I-Ching Pre-Heaven Pa- Kua. Chinese civilization began to take off since that. Chinese sometimes encourage people using the Spirit of the Dragon-Horse. Dragon-Horse Spirit doesn't mean only a person with full energy as the Dragon-Horse, but also, a person pushing himself to transcend his potential to hold the leadership.

Every Chinese dynasty, Chinese look for sturdy and beautiful stallions. The stallion must be tall and be able to outrun other horses. If the stallion can run one-thousand-Chinese-mile (about 312 miles) a day, then it called one-thousand-Chinese-mile Horse, which means winged steed. One-thousand-Chinese-mile Horses can help the emperors to conquer the nation. Also, a winged steed can save the master's life by running away swiftly, if the master cannot fight with the enemy. Today, when a person is called one-thousand-Chinese-mile Horse, that means the person is a hard-to-find, outstanding, experienced elite and knows how to run the business.

One of famous one-thousand-Chinese-mile Horses in China is called Sweat-Blood Horse. They said the sweat of Sweat-Blood Horse is red, when it runs in high speed for a while. According to the study, Sweat-Blood Horse was a Turkmenistan horse breed. One Chinese emperor sent more than 50 thousand soldiers to Turkmenistan to bring back a thousand of Sweat-Blood Horses. But only half of horses arrived China alive.

Genghis Khan built the Mongol Empire by horses. The Mongol Horses were a smaller breed, they were bred for endurance, not for speed like stallions. Genghis Khan conquered Eastern Europe so quickly. Because Eastern European countries never realized Mongol cavalry can arrive their territories so fast and they didn't have enough time to prepare the defense. They said each Mongol cavalryman had three or four horses. They will change another horse when one got tired. So Mongolian horses can take turn and get some rest. Mongol cavalryman even knew how to sleep in the saddle. That's why they can travel long distances without stopping. We know horses can sleep while standing. Mongolian horses have a better sleeping skill. When they ran in a group, the horse in the center can sleep while running.

Horse is intelligent animal. Horses need to be trained to become useful to human. Human can make Horse famous. Without human's guide, Horse just a wild animal. It doesn't know where to go. There is no destination in its life.


2014: The Year in Volcanic Activity

Once again, it has been a particularly eventful year for the world's volcanoes. Out of an estimated 1,500 active volcanoes, 50 or so erupt every year, spewing steam, ash, toxic gases, and lava. In 2014, erupting volcanoes included Mount Sinabung, Mount Kelud, and Sangeang Api in Indonesia, Bardarbunga in Iceland, Mount Ontake in Japan, Tungurahua in Ecuador, Pico do Fogo in Cape Verde, Mount Etna and Stromboli in Italy, Pavlof in Alaska, and Kilauea in Hawaii. Collected below are scenes from the wide variety of volcanic activity on Earth over the past year.

Mount Sinabung spews pyroclastic gas and ash, seen from Tiga Pancur village on October 13, 2014 in Berastagi, Karo district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mount Sinabung, which has lain dormant for over 400 years, has been intermittently erupting since September 15 last year, killing dozens and forcing thousands to flee their homes. #

Lava explodes from the Pico do Fogo volcano next to the village of Portela on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, on November 28, 2014. Molten lava from the volcano in the Cape Verde archipelago slid towards the town of Cha das Caldeiras on Thursday, threatening to destroy it and a nearby village four days after an initial eruption. #

A giant cloud of ash and steam rise from erupting Sangeang Api volcano seen from Bima town on Sumbawa island, Indonesia, on May 30, 2014. Flights into and out of the northern Australian city of Darwin were cancelled May 31, and some to Bali affected, after huge ash clouds were thrown up by the volcano. #

Steam and ash rise from the Bardarbunga volcano in southeast Iceland on September 14, 2014. The Bardarbunga volcano system has been rocked by hundreds of tremors daily since mid-August, prompting fears the volcano could explode. Bardarbunga, at 2,000 meters (6,500 feet), is Iceland's second-highest peak and is located under Europe's largest glacier, Vatnajoekull. #

An aerial picture taken on September 14, 2014 shows lava flowing out of the Bardarbunga volcano in southeast Iceland. #

A plane flies over the Bardarbunga volcano spewing lava and steam in southeast Iceland on September 14, 2014. #

Smoke rises from the lava eruption on Holuhraun, northwest of the Dyngjujoekull glacier in Iceland, on September 1, 2014. Lava fountains danced along a lengthy volcanic fissure near Iceland's subglacial Bardarbunga volcano, prompting authorities to raise the aviation warning code to the highest level and close the surrounding airspace. #

Volcanic ash covers a plane and the airport of Solo in Central Java about 150 kilometers (93 miles) west of Mount Kelud volcano on February 14, 2014. Several people were been crushed to death after a volcanic eruption blanketed rooftops with rocks and ash, causing homes to cave in, an official said on February 14. #

Residents evacuate under a massive plume of hot ash clouds spewing from Mount Kelud volcano as seen from Malang district in East Java province on February 14, 2014. #

The Tungurahua volcano throws ash and stones during an eruption seen from Banos, Ecuador, on August 31, 2014. The volcano entered an eruptive phase in 1999 and continues to this day. #

In this April 4, 2014 photo, the Tungurahua volcano spews a column of ash as seen from Ambato, Ecuador. The volcano spewed a miles high column of ash after a powerful explosion that shot pyroclastic material onto its northern and northwestern flanks. #

Lava from the Stromboli volcano flows into the sea, on August 9, 2014. Stromboli, one of Europe's most active volcanoes, is part of the seven-island Eolian Archipelago just off Sicily in southern Italy. #

Lava from the Stromboli volcano explosively meets the sea on August 9, 2014. #

This photo taken on March 22, 2014 shows the blue flame of burning sulfur at the crater of the Kawah Ijen volcano in Banyuwangi regency, East Java province. The natural phenomenon which can be seen at night is caused by sulfuric gases from the volcano which can ignite into blue flames. #

This Photo taken on February 1, 2014 shows a miner carrying blocks of sulfur from Ijen crater in Banyuwangi East Java. A miner can weigh from 45 to 90kg and might make as many as two or three trips in a day. The sulfur is then used for vulcanizing rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes. #

A plume of smoke from Alaska's Pavlof volcano on the lower Alaska peninsula is pictured in this November 15, 2014 NASA satellite image. By November 15, Pavlof was lofting ash plumes to an altitude of 30,000 feet (9 kilometers), high enough to disrupt commercial airline flights. #

A picture taken on June 21, 2014 shows lava flowing out of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, one of the world's most active volcanoes, located on the French island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean. The Piton de la Fournaise started to erupt early on June 21. #

A pyroclastic flow races down the side of Mount Sinabung during an eruption near Karo, North Sumatra on January 7, 2014. #

Two boys wear plastic bags to cover their face from ash following a further eruption of Mount Sinabung on January 4, 2014 in Karo District, North Sumatra. #

A long exposure photograph taken late on October 9, 2014 shows scorching lava flow and giant ash clouds released from the crater during the eruption of Mount Sinabung volcano as seen from Karo district of Sumatra island. #

Wind funnels appear over the volcanic ash-covered landscape in Berastepu village, in the district of Karo near Mount Sinabung on January 26, 2014. #

A photographer runs as Mount Sinabung erupts with ash clouds, as seen from Karo District on Sumatra island on October 25, 2014. Super-heated ash clouds reaching two kilometers into the air spewed from the crater of Mount Sinabung volcano threatening villages during its recent series of eruptions. #

A cat sits in an area covered by ash as following an eruption of Mount Sinabung in Sebintun village on January 9, 2014 in Karo District, North Sumatra. #

This long exposure photograph taken before dawn on October 14, 2014 shows sparks of lightning, scorching lava flow and giant ash clouds released from the crater during the eruption of Mount Sinabung on Sumatra island. #

Nine months after a new island broke through the surface of the western Pacific Ocean, the volcanic eruption at Nishino-shima continues. The tiny new volcanic island ("Niijima" in Japanese) merged into Nishino-shima last winter and continued to grow. Steady flows of lava are enlarging the merged island, which is now 1.39 square kilometers (0.54 square miles). The Operational Land Imager on Landsat 8 captured this image of Nishino-shima on August 21, 2014. #

Lava flows from Mount Etna on the southern Italian island of Sicily near Catania on August 14, 2014. Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. #

A cloud of ash and vapor spewed by the Tungurahua volcano can be seen from the city of Riobamba, Ecuador, on February 1, 2014. #

Steam and volcanic gases rise from Mount Ontake on September 27, 2014. The volcano, a a popular tourist attraction, erupted suddenly on September 27, catching several hundred climbers offguard. 57 people were killed, buried beneath the ash. #

Climbers descend Mount Ontake, fleeing volcanic ash on September 27, 2014. #

Japan Self-Defense Force soldiers and firefighters work among mountain lodges covered with volcanic ash near the peak of Mount Ontake on September 28, 2014. #

A hiker is lifted by a rescue helicopter during a rescue operation on Mount Ontake on September 28, 2014. #

Firefighters carry a hiker trapped in the summit area of Mount Ontake during Saturday's initial eruption in central Japan, on September 28, 2014. #

In this September 1, 2014 photo, fluid lava streams from the June 27 lava flow from the Kilauea volcano in Pahoa, Hawaii. The June 27 lava flow is named for the date it began erupting from a new vent. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory issued warnings to Pahoa, in the path of a lava flow on Hawaii's Big Island, as the molten rock moved to within a mile of homes. Kilauea has been erupting continuously for more than 31 years. #

Lava from an upstream lobe of the June 27 lava flow overcomes a fence marking a private property line near the town of Pahoa, Hawaii, on October 31, 2014. #

Lava flow from the Kilauea Volcano passes through a fence to the Pahoa transfer station in Pahoa, Hawaii, on November 16, 2014. #

Lava flows on a dirt road past a protected utility pole, a result of the Kilauea Volcano eruption and lava flow. #

September 1, a closer look at the stream of lava from Kilauea, pouring into a deep ground crack. #

The June 27 lava flow covers most of Pahoa Cemetery on October 26, 2014. #

A melted enclosure containing a time lapse camera that USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory scientists were using to monitor a lava tube skylight near the town of Pahoa on the Big Island of Hawaii on November 7, 2014. The camera was caught in an overflow of lava surrounding the tripod that melted the power cable and the camera's container. Hawaii County civil defense officials said in a statement Saturday the lava's front remains about 480 feet from Pahoa Village Road. This position hasn't changed since October 30. But lava is creeping out at several spots upslope of the leading edge. #

Turrialba volcano, located in the Costa Rican province of Cartago, about 35km southwest of San Jose, spews ash on November 1, 2014. The eruption was the largest in the last 150 years, according to the National University of Costa Rica. #

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January stock drop bodes ill for 2014

The rocky start to 2014 on Wall Street, where U.S. stocks posted their first loss in January since 2010, could be a bad omen for the rest of the year.

How stocks fare in January often sets the tone for the full year. Historically, the Standard & Poor's 500 index has finished the year in positive territory after January declines only about 50% of the time, according to the Stock Trader's Almanac. In contrast, stocks finish the year up 73% of the time following January gains, data from S&P Dow Jones Indices show. After Friday's 0.7% drop, the S&P 500 ended the month down 3.6%.

"Negative (returns) in January are more a toss of a coin" when trying to predict what's next for stocks, says Alan Skrainka, chief investment officer at Cornerstone Wealth Management.

Perhaps more worrisome, even though some years ended higher after an opening month dip, "every down January since 1950 was followed by a new or continuing bear market, a 10% correction or a flat market," the 2014 Almanac says. Big January losses in 2000 and 2008 set in motion the two most recent bear markets, or drops of 20% or more.

That's why the weak start to 2014 is ramping up the fear factor.

The stock downdraft has been driven by a variety of factors colliding at the same time. Financial turmoil in emerging markets such as Turkey and South Africa is the major source of angst, as it has raised concerns about financial contagion. Adding to the anxiety: the Federal Reserve's move to keep "tapering" its market-friendly stimulus and signs of a slowdown in China, the globe's chief growth driver in recent years.

After last year's 30% gain, the U.S. market is no longer cheap, which makes it more vulnerable to unexpected shocks.

But tough starts to January don't always spell doom.

Many on Wall Street still expect an improving U.S. economy to provide cover for a market that got hit with a slew of setbacks right from the get-go in January.

"A lot can happen in the next 11 months, and I expect fundamentals to dictate the S&P 500's ultimate performance for 2014," says David Bianco, chief U.S. equity strategist at Deutsche Bank.

Indeed, there have been years when the market has finished up sharply for the year after a drop in January. The S&P 500 rose 26.4% in 2003 after a 2.7% loss in January. The market soared 23.5% in 2009 in the first year of the bull market after plunging 8.6% in the year's opening month.

"There were some spectacular years that an investor would have missed had he sold out," Skrainka says. "We still think the year can be positive since the economy is improving, and valuation is reasonable."

The U.S. stock market, he adds, has gone 850 days without a correction of 10% or more, vs. a correction every 230 days, on average. As a result, the market was overdue for a pullback following last year's big gains.

Bill Hornbarger, chief investment strategist at Moneta Group, still expects stocks to rebound but warns of two risks that could do further harm: "emerging-market weakness becoming a 1998-99 type of contagion event and spreading to Europe or a monetary policy mistake, maybe someone raising rates too soon or (being) too aggressive on tapering."


The Stages of this Winter Storm

After a warm spell between Christmas and New Year's, the snow cover across the area was less than an inch (or in many cases down to no snow at all). A quick clipper during the early morning hours of New Year's Eve (Monday night) brought the area up to a couple of inches. The first round of snowfall for this winter storm that brought snow cover back to all of northern Ohio and northwest Pennsylvania came New Year's Eve. Snow spotters recorded 1 to 4 inches of new snow. This snow continued during the day on New Year's Day. The snow fell at a light, but steady pace. By the evening on the 1st, another 1 to 3 inches fell.

Jan 1 at 1 am EST Jan 1 at 10 am EST Jan 1 @ 7 pm EST

There was a lull in snowfall late on New Year's Day and through the early evening. Overnight, though, the next part of this system was quickly approaching. Low pressure was moving across the Ohio Valley spreading a swath of snow across Illinois, Indiana, and then Ohio and Pennsylvania.

Jan 2 at 10 am EST Jan 2 at 4 pm EST

Another 1 to 4 inches fell overnight and through mid morning on January 2nd. From mid-morning through the evening, the area was in the heart of the heaviest snowfall. In addition to the falling snow winds picked up and gusted around 30 MPH, blowing and drifting snow and reducing visibility. Snow spotters reported 2 to 8 inches during the day on the 2nd. Finally, this storm wrapped up with a lake enhanced snowfall that affected north-central and northeast Ohio during the late afternoon and evening hours on the 2nd. This gave these areas another 1 to 3 inches. Lake effect snow showers continued into the morning of the 3rd, but by late afternoon, skies were clearing from the west and snow across the east was diminishing to flurries. The snow cover across the area had now built up to 6 to 10 inches for most. There was as little as 4 inches on the ground in the Marion area to as much as 12 to 16 inches in the snowbelt.

At the bottom of the page you can find the storm total snowfall reports from our dedicated snow spotters. We thank them for braving snow and wind to take as accurate measurements as possible.

Jan 2 at 10 pm EST Jan 3 at 1 pm EST


January 31, 2014 Day 11 of the Sixth Year - History

Free Chinese Calendar 2014 - Year of the Horse

Want to know when is the 2014 Chinese New Year day? Look for free Chinese calendars for 2014?

Chinese New Year Date for Year 2014

The Horse2014January 31FridayChinese New Year

Chinese New Year (Chinese: 春節, 春节, Chūnjíe 農曆新年, 农历新年, Nónglì Xīnnián or 過年, 过年, Guònián), also known as the Lunar New Year or the Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It consists of a period of celebrations, starting on New Year's Day, celebrated on the first day of the first month of the Chinese calendar. The Chinese New Year period ends with the Lantern Festival, the fifteenth day of the month. More on Chinese New Year and other festivals.

Free Chinese Calendars in Different Formats for Year 2014

Chinese Wedding Calendar for Year 2014

Getting married soon? Wants to select a good wedding date based on the Chinese calendar? Here is a Chinese wedding calendar for 2014: Wedding Calendar 2014

The Horse Personality - By Theodora Lau

People born in the year of the horse are sanguine, sharp-minded, dress fashionably, gifted with a silver tongue, and have acute insight. But they fall in the snares of love easily, and break away from them lightly. More.

Chinese Horoscopes - The Horse

Exciting and extroverted, vivid and animated, the Horse is the life of any party he attends. He is bursting with energy, always looking for the next place to kick up his heels and hang loose. He entertains friends and strangers alike with his humor and appeal. More.

Chinese Calendar Background Information

What is a solar calendar? What is a lunar calendar? What are solar terms? How many months in a Chinese calendar year? If you are interested in those questions, read Chinese Calendar Background Information.


January Units, Lesson Plans & Activities

We have organized all of our January bulletin boards, lesson plans, activities, thematic units, and resources.

  • January Events Calendar
    Our interactive monthly calendar that includes the various January holidays and special events. Find links to great resources.
  • January Bulletin Boards
    Displays for your classroom related to the various themes and events of January. Many of our bulletin board resources overlay, so you can also find additional ideas on our main bulletin board page.
  • January Writing Prompts
    A unique and historically significant writing prompt for every day of the month.
  • New Year's
    Ring in the New Year with your students!
    Lessons and resources to commemorate this important man.
    Find resources such as calendars, puppets, food, and more.
    (Depending on the year, this event may occur in February.)
    Bring the "Big Game" to life in your classroom with fun and educational ideas.
    (Depending on the year, this event may occur in February.)
  • Winter
    Ideas, activities and lessons that are geared for this cold, snowy season.
  • Ice & Snow Fun
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
    A completely customizable printable calendar. Simply click on days and edit events, colors, backgrounds and fonts.

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    January 31, 2014 Day 11 of the Sixth Year - History

    Environment - San Diego Rainfall Data
    John S. Stokes III
    [email protected]
    https://www.instagram.com/johnstokesiii/

    San Diego Rain History

    As a San Diego resident I've found it hard to find a convenient place to find annual rainfall data for San Diego in a useful format. Most records are kept by calendar year, but San Diego's weather is highly seasonal with most of the rain falling in the November-March time period. I have developed a file of monthly San Diego rainfall data which presents the data by both calendar year AND by season (running from July to June).

    For commentary on recent rain events or ongoing rain activity see Weather Notes.

    The San Diego Rain Data File

    The file is comma delimited, in the format of:

    Year, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec, YearTotal, NextJan, NextFeb, NextMar, NextApr, NextMay, NextJun, SeasonTotal

    DOWNLOAD: File is here (sandiegorain.txt). The data will come up as a separate page. It is easy to bring the data into a spreadsheet. Save the text page. Then open a spreadsheet program and import the data from the saved text file. I try to keep the file "reasonably current". Scroll down for notes about recent rain activity and file updating.

    The data was derived from NWS records going back to 1850, the link I use to have here no longer works. Some of the totals in the early years may result from incomplete data. Also the rain gage wasn't always at the same exact location, there's a story about this somewhere on the web. I recall it being in something like nine different locations since 1850. The current official NWS records go back to 1875 perhaps for this reason.

    If you are looking for official NWS statistics for recent days and months, go to NWS San Diego Forecast Office (climate data).


    San Diego Annual Rainfall by Calendar Year in Inches
    1850 through 2020
    2020 shown in red
    This chart updated annually in early January

    San Diego Rainfall by Season in inches (July 1 through June 30)
    1850-1851 through 2019-2020
    2019-2020 season shown in red

    San Diego Rainfall by Season in inches (July 1 through June 30)
    This chart updated annually in early July

    Is there major climate change going on here in San Diego as far as rain is concerned?

    The long term pattern suggests there is not. According to the following chart I prepared from the data file, grouping average rainfall by decade, rainfall has been remarkably steady.

    However: Even if rainfall remains fairly constant on a per decade basis, there are three factors which are contributing to increased water shortages:
    1) Increased demand
    2) My San Diego Temperature page shows a clear increase in temperature over the long term. This means that the rate evaporation is increasing, which in turn increases the demand for irrigation (note: more research here is needed)
    3) Warmer temperatures cause more precipitation to fall as rain instead of snow over the mountains, and with a reduced snow pack there are reduced snow melts available to feed some reservoirs during the dry season.

    December 31, 2019 note: The decade is done, the average annual rain for the 2010's (2010 through 2019) came in at 9.63" at the San Diego Airport, thanks to a very wet 2010 and 2019. The annual average for the last 170 years is 9.86". So despite increasing sea levels, decreasing polar ice, increasing temperatures, increasing carbon dioxide, increasing methane and increasing nitrous oxide, the rains continue to be quite constant when grouped by decade.

    January 1, 2019 note: One thing of interest is to look at the calendar year chart. There is an interest phenomenon when looking at years with less than 11 inches of rain. Whenever a streak started and got up to 6 years in a row, the streak was broken in the following year.
    Streak #1: 1856 through 1861
    Streak #2: 1896 through 1901
    Streak #3: 1945 through 1950
    Streak #4: 1959 through 1965
    Streak #5: 1970 through 1975

    This streak of streaks has been broken! The latest streak started in 2011 and is still going after 8 years! None-the-less, the average for the latest decade is not particularly low as shown in the decade chart, below. This is because the first year of the decade, 2010, had a fat 16.26".


    San Diego average annual rainfall by decade in inches.

    John's Recent San Diego Rain File Updates and Rain notes
    See Weather Notes for more discussion
    Rain totals are for San Diego International Airport (also known as Lindbergh Field)

    June 1, 2021 7:53 PM - Rain file updated. Repeat of last month, SD Airport May rainfall: 0.07". YTD 3.52", Season to date 4.50". Again well below normal. The areas of drought in western United States continues to worsen. Hoping for a productive monsoon season, sure need it!

    May 1, 2021 12:27 PM - Rain file updated. SD Airport April rainfall: .0.07". YTD: 3.45", Season to date: 4.43". Obviously well below normal. April was particularly disappointing as it was the last month with a reasonable potential to come through. Remember April 2020? A fat 3.68". Statistically May and June bring an average total of .32".

    April 1, 2021 9:51 AM - Rain file updated. SD Airport March rainfall: 1.48". YTD: 3.38", Season to date: 4.36" well below normal.

    March 3, 2021 8:46 PM - Oops forgot to post February. Done. Just .10" for the month at SD Airport. Was getting very dry here. today's rain helped a lot.

    January 30, 2021 10:05 PM - Yes it's early, I've updated the rain file for January. 1.80" for the month at SD Airport.

    January 1, 2020 5:05 PM - CORRECTION: while preparing the annual rain chart updates (to be posted real soon now) I discovered that the January 2020 figure in the text file was incorrect: the correct figure is .48" not .43". I have updated the text file to reflect this. This also bring the year total to 7.83".

    January 1, 2020 8:58 AM - Rain file updated. .60" for the month of December at SD Airport. Year total 7.83" (corrected from 7.78").

    December 1, 2020 8:00 PM - Rain file updated. Just .26" for the month of November at SD Airport. However, here at Elfin Forest we had .88" in November! The rain here triggered some greening , but the last week has been super dry and a prolong Santa Ana is in the forecast with no rain at least until December 10th.

    November 3, 2020 3:01 PM - Rain file updated. .12" for the month of October at SD Airport. Had some days with above normal smoke / haze although better than September. Not much going on locally, had some nice sunrises and sunsets the past few days with the passage of an upper level low pressure system.

    October 1, 2020 12:15 PM - Rain file updated. 0.00 for the month of September at SD Airport. The third month in a row with zero rain. This year's monsoon season was a huge fail. The fire season started early across large swaths of California, Oregon and Washington. We had a couple weeks of haze, some bordering on unhealthy. To the north the air quality was worse than hazardous and still is quite bad.

    September 1, 2020 3:27 PM - Rain file updated. 0.00 for the month of August at SD Airport. Although August was a few degrees above normal temperature with some humidity at times, the monsoon season continued as a major disappointment. We are just a couple weeks away from the end of the season!

    August 4, 2020 9:06PM - Rain file updated. 0.00 for the month of July at SD Airport, the fifth year in a row of zero rain in July. Been some left over marine layer season in July providing morning dew. The monsoon season has been a total disappointment, just nothing except a few days of very minimal cumulus over the mountains. Nothing on the horizon for August.

    July 3, 2020 9:06 AM - Rain file updated, .14" for June, above normal for this time of the year. The July-June season came in at 13.72" well above normal and the wettest in 15 years. The chart has been updated.

    June 2, 2020 7:21 AM - Rain file updated. 0.02 for the month of May at SD Airport. Normal is .12" so not much difference. May gray, June gloom, not much climate change as far as this is concerned! However May did come in 4.7 degrees above normal.

    April 30, 2020 8:54 AM - Rain file updated. 3.68" for the month of April at SD Airport, way above normal. My Elfin Forest gauge had 6.91" for the month including .01" from dew the last couple mornings. That's close to a foot of rain in the last two months.

    March 31, 2020 10:08 PM - Rain file updated. 2.15" for the month of March at SD Airport, about 3/8" above normal. My Elfin Forest gauge had 5.03" for the month, Bankers Hill, not available thanks to the pandemic, certainly over 3" maybe 3.5". Talk of showers or a little more this weekend into next week.

    March 1, 2020 3:47 PM - Rain file updated. 0.38" for the month of February, second month in a row way below normal. Last year in January we had 2.80", and this year .43" and last year's February was 3.42"! So we are off to a rather dry start. Our yard is still fairly lush (weeds growing like crazy), but the drying out is well underway and irrigating some areas is now required. The NWS forecast suggests some rain later today or tonight, we've had a trace in Bankers Hill so far. Thanks to an alert viewer, I've corrected the annual rain chart to show "2020" for the current year instead of "2010". No changes required for the data.

    January 31, 2020 11:06 AM - Rain file updated. 0.43" for the month of January way below normal. No rain on the horizon. NOTE: On January 1, 2021 I corrected the January figure in the text file: it was .48" for the month.

    December 31, 2019 8:25 PM - Rain file updated. A super fat 4.03" for the month, well above normal. The year's total came to 15.28" the most in nine years!

    December 1, 2019 6:45 PM - Rain file updated. A fat 2.72" for the month of November, well above normal. California did very well with huge snowfalls in the resort areas like Big Bear. Any thoughts about a returning drought completely smashed, the fire season is certainly over!

    November 2, 2019 11:31 AM - Rain file updated, nothing for October, not a trace. There's been two major red flag warning Santa Ana events locally and elsewhere in the state, with several big fires well to the north - not at the Witch Creek / Cedar / Camp fire levels - but still destructive and deadly. Too early to start talking about a return of the drought - but on notice as the first two weeks of November look to be bone dry.

    September 30, 2019 3:23 PM - Rain file updated, .11" for September, roughly normal for the month. Around the second week of September the weather pattern switched from the occasional weak monsoon, to the fall pattern of weak troughs from the NW with the continuing usual small chance of tropical storm debris coming up Baja.

    August 31, 2019 9:37 AM - Rain file updated, nothing for August, certainly none will fall on this last day. Monsoon activity continues well below normal and talk of drought to the east is increasing. However, there is monsoonal rain to the east predicted for this coming week, will monitor.

    August 1, 2019 9:19 AM - Rain file updated, nothing for July accept for a trace on the 25th. Quite normal for July, the fourth year in a row with zero. Monsoon activity to the East has been light.

    July 1, 2019 9:28 PM - Rain file updated, .01" for June, typical for this time of the year. The July-June season came in at 12.84" nicely above normal. Will be updating the chart.

    May 31, 2019 8:00 PM - Rain file updated, .80" for May, well above normal. The rain was scattered throughout the month, making the month seem wetter than it really was. The weather pattern now appears to be more normal, maybe June will be our first zero month of the dry season. If June does come in at zero, we'll still end up with 12.83" for the July-June season, almost 4 times last year's seasonal total of just 3.40".

    May 2, 2019 11:56 AM - Rain file updated, .16" for April, well below normal and the second below normal month in a row. The top few inches of ground are now quite dry

    March 31, 2019 7:31 PM - Rain file updated, 1.23" for March, the first below normal month for the San Diego Airport since November. At my Bankers Hill gauge just a few miles away as the crow flies, we had 1.85", quite a difference! I'd like to see at least one good rain in April, say an inch or so as the top soil is already beginning to dry out, but statistics and the current weather pattern do not favor this.

    March 1, 2019 8:08 AM - Rain file updated, 3.42" for February about 1.5" above normal! I figure the SD airport already has had 10.64" for the winter season, more than the yearly seasonal average of just under 10". Here in Banker's Hill we've had 13.1" since late November, probably over 14" for the winter season.

    February 1, 2019 1:43 PM - Rain file updated, 2.80" for January. We've had excellent rainfall since late November, the area is as lush as I've seen it in a long time. Another storm is predicted for tomorrow. At my gauge in Bankers Hill we've had 8.6" of rain since late November and with tomorrow's storm we may reach close to the amount which falls in a year!

    January 1, 2019 1:16 PM - Rain file updated, 3.02" for December, well above the normal of 1.79, and 7.65" for the year, below the normal of 9.83".

    December 2, 2018 11:53 AM - Rain file updated, 0.81" for November about .20" below normal. San Diego airport had one of the lowest readings for San Diego county coastal and mountain areas in November, the situation for the county is better than indicated.

    November 1, 2018 11:58 AM - Rain file updated, 0.57" for October, exactly normal for the airport! Most of the rain at the airport fell on October 12, .49" worth, my gauge recorded .60". For the month .66" fell here. Amazingly just that rain was enough to green up things somewhat, particularly our jade plants. Been very dry since then, we'll need a good soaking in November to keep things from regressing.

    October 3, 2018 9:30 AM - Rain file updated, nothing for September.

    August 31, 2018 9:18 PM - Rain file updated. 0.02" for August - recorded at the airport on August 16, but nothing here. So .02" gets added to the file. Monsoonal moisture has been notably absent this year, very few days so far in the July-August period with storms in the mountains. The season ends around mid September and so far nothing is in the forecast. See Weather Notes about the heat (to be posted September 1)

    August 1, 2018 10:41 AM - Rain file updated, nothing for July except a trace on the first day - pretty normal for July. Been muggy for over a week with some monsoonal moisture over the mountains and to east in Arizona, but nothing here.

    June 30, 2018 3:39 PM - Rain file updated, nothing for June. The July-June rainy season measuring interval shows just 3.4" of rain for San Diego, the second driest in San Diego's history with 2001-2002 @ 2.99 being the driest.

    June 1, 2018 2:22 PM - Rain file updated, .12" for May, right at the NWS normal for the month my long history has about .26" as being normal. Yesterday, I recorded just over .02" in the morning, the airport had a trace. We continue on track for the second lowest July-June rainy season total.

    May 1, 2018 10:26 AM - Rain file updated, 0.02" for April, obviously another below normal month. For the last 10 months we are at 3.28" at the airport, the second lowest since records began in 1850. .1"to .25" is predicted for the next day, a small morsel for this hungry Earth.

    March 31, 2018 9:16 PM - Rain file updated, 0.95" for March, another below normal month. California had good rains to the north and the reservoirs are in good condition.

    March 1, 2018 9:07 AM - Rain file updated, 0.36" for February, well below the normal of around 2". Locally I measured .34" for the month. Most areas of San Diego County coast and mountains had more.

    February 2, 2018 8:58 AM - Rain file updated, 1.78" for January, .2" below normal. Almost all of rain came from the one excellent storm. Been dry for the past three weeks.

    December 30, 2017 3:18 PM - Rain file updated, just .07" for December. This completes the driest June-December stretch in San Diego history going back to 1852, with just .19".

    December 3, 2017 4:35 PM - Rain file updated, just .02" for November. The NWS is saying that it is likely there will be no rain through the first two weeks of December, making this the driest start of the rainy season since 1929! My records show there was no rain in December 1929, but the following January had 3.90". This year we are showing 0.10" since the first of September. 1929 had 0.26" in September followed by no rain for the rest of the year.

    November 1, 2017 11:35 AM - Rain file updated, a trace for October. Last five months had just 1/10 of an inch total, not unusual. There's talk of some rain this weekend, we'll see!

    October 1, 2017 6:27 PM - Rain file updated, .08" for September. One more normally dry month to go then hopefully we'll see some good rains in November!

    September 1, 2017 8:28 PM - Rain file updated, second consecutive trace month. A few fat raindrops on the 28th from a small cell with three cracks of thunder, but not enough to register.

    August 1, 2017 3:45 PM - Rain file updated, a trace for July at the airport. We had one day with raindrops to just wet the ground, but my gauge failed to record anything. The ground is now seasonally dry, but overall OK, no increase in the drought level. Been some rain in the mountains but nothing particularly noteworthy. Here's hoping for something to reach the coast this month.

    June 30, 2017 10:51 AM - Rain file updated, .02" for June thanks to a deep drizzly marine layer on June 11, the same amount for the month I recorded. The seasonal chart for 2016-2017h as been updated, the season came in at 12.97", almost 3 inches above normal and the third year of increase in a row.

    June 9, 2017 10:36 PM - Rain file updated. .92" for May, nicely above normal and much needed after a couple dry months. Great shape for the summer. Note: I was away in the U.K., sorry for the late update!

    May 1, 2017 2:20 PM - Rain file updated. Just .01" for April at the airport. Nothing in my gauge. So after three great months of rain, we've had almost nothing for two months. Makes for an "ideal" allergy season, I'm sure feeling it!

    Reinhard Flick a coastal oceanographer at Scripps Oceanography kindly shared a cool graph he derived from the rain file data using October through September as the yearly interval. The graph brings out long term wetter normal and dryer than normal spells in visual from.

    He wrote: "The red bars are the average annual (oct-sep) averages, and the black line is the cumulative residual. This is calculated by first subtracting the long-term average (now 9.88 in from 1850 to 2016 [. ]) from each annual total to first get the residual, which of course can be positive or negative depending if rainfall was higher or lower than average that year. Second, the residuals are accumulated, that is the second year is the sum of the first two, the third the sum of the first three and so on."

    April 1, 2017 10:48 AM - Rain file updated. Just .08" for March, about 5% of normal. The drought code for San Diego did drop in March to just "abnormally dry" the lowest of the codes. The top inch to inch and a half of the soil is now hard and dry, while deeper down there is plenty of moisture, a reversal of recent years. Still hoping for one more good rain before the dry season intensifies, but nothing is in the forecast.

    March 1, 2017 7:48 AM - Rain file updated. The historic rain of February 27 with 2.34" at the airport brought the total for February to 3.71". The last three months have seen 4.22", 3.01" and 3.71" for a total of 10.94" more than a year's worth! During this time the drought code for San Diego has dropped two notches from Exceptional to Moderate, and I hope at least another notch reduction tomorrow.

    February 2, 2017 10:58 AM - Rain file updated. The wonderful river of water went dry on January 24, with 3.01" for the month at that time. Been bone dry since, 3.01" was the final total, well above the average of 1.89".

    January 18, 2017 3:43 PM - Rain file updated. The correct total for 2016 was 10.23" not 10.44". Thank you Jay Hansen for alerting about the error. The graphic for 2016 will be updated later today.

    January 1, 2017 5:29 PM - Rain file updated. December 4.22", more than twice the normal amount! Most of this in the second half of the month. Should be very helpful for the drought as the year came in at 10.44", the second year in a row at or slightly above normal. First year since 2010 San Diego broke 10". The U.S. Drought Monitor still has San Diego as being in "Extreme" drought. Perhaps we can finally back off to being "just" Severe? Or maybe even "just" Moderate?

    November 29, 2016 4:13 PM - Rain file updated. November .61", about 1/3" below normal. Some parts of the county had rain well above normal. I can confidently say there will be no rain tomorrow, this month is done.

    November 2, 2016 11:32 AM - Rain file updated. October just .07" well below normal, with temperature well above normal. No rain in sight for the first week or so of November.

    October 8, 2016 6:50 PM - Rain file updated. August was zero, September .32" thanks to the remnants of a tropical disturbance.

    August 1, 2016 1:36 PM - Rain text file updated, July a trace, making two trace months in a row. About 1 out of 3 years will see a June-July with 0" of rain, so this is not unusual. However, my yard sure needs rain!

    July 5, 2016 9:10 AM - Rain text file updated, June a trace, pretty typical for this time of the year. The 2015-2016 season came in at 11.03", about an inch above normal and the highest in five years.

    June 1, 2016 7:37 PM - Rain text file updated, May .44" inches of rain, .32" inch above normal.

    May 2, 2016 11:35 AM - Rain text file updated, April .55" inches of rain, .23" inch below normal.

    April 1, 2016 1:45 PM - Rain text file updated, March .76" inches of rain, about an inch below normal.

    March 1, 2016 10:35 AM - Rain text file updated, February just 0.05" inches of rain.

    February 1, 2016 12:53 PM - Rain text file updated, January 3.21" well above normal! Meanwhile northern CA has continued to received substantial rains and there has been very significant increases in reservoir levels in the northern part of the state this past month.

    December 31, 2015 8:47 PM - File updated, December 0.88"', about half of normal. The year came in at 9.89" almost the exactly the same as the normal amount of 9.85". There has been a slight increase in the reservoir levels in northern CA this past month, but continue well below normal throughout the state and much lower than they were at the start of the year.

    December 1, 2015 4:30 PM - File updated, November 1.54", about 50% above normal. YTD is 9.01" already the wettest year in four years and about 3/4" above normal YTD. The reservoir levels throughout the state remain well below normal.

    November 2, 2015 6:44 PM - File updated, October .43", just about normal. The year at 7.47" (corrected December 1 from 7.44") is still running about 1/4" above normal.

    October 1, 2015 12:21 PM - File updated, September 1.24", obviously well above the the normal of 0.05". I have the first nine months at 7.04" about 1/4" ABOVE normal for the year! I have the last five months at 5.39" an all time record for San Diego in the normally dry period, trouncing the previous record of 3.95" set in 1977 (September of that year had no measurable rain).

    September 1, 2015 10:07 PM - File updated, August 0.01", pretty usual for a typically dry August. Inland monsoonal rains I think were a bit below normal.

    August 3, 2015 3:31 PM - File updated, July 1.71", historical by all measures!

    July 19, 2015 7:07 PM - We've had extraordinary rains in the last couple days.

    July 2, 2015 12:10 PM - File updated, June .04". The 2014-2015 season came in at 9.01", about an inch below normal, but the highest amount in four years.

    May 31, 2015 8:50 PM - File updated, May 2.39", smashing the normal figure of 0.25". San Diego had the second wettest May on record, going back to 1852! The July 2014 - June 2015 seasonal total is now at 8.99", the wettest in four years and only an inch below normal

    May 5, 2015 12:38 PM - File updated, April .02", obviously well below the normal of .7". Since 1852 only three years have had drier first four months than this year's 1.65". 2002 saw 1.58", 1984 saw 1.21" and 1972 an ultra dry 0.19". The average is 6.09".

    March 31, 2015 8:07 PM - File updated, March .93". All of it fell in the first two days of the month, then nothing. So with the first three months well below normal, unfortunately the drought is going into the fourth year, consequences could be considerable. March also came in as the warmest March in San Diego history, beating last year's record by more than 2 degrees. Evidence from many sources indicate we are in a world wide warming trend.

    March 2, 2015 7:30 PM - Yesterday came in at .68", shortchanged! Today has brought in .23" so far. Again inland and northern areas in San Diego county received more: there, the vegetation must be quite happy with all this rain!


    Big cumulus over San Diego - Sunday February 8, 2009


    Year in the Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Since the creation of the People's Republic of China on October 1st 1949 by the President MAO Zedong (Mao Tsetong), China has officially adopted the Gregorian calendar, or the solar calendar for the administration purpose. Nevertheless, the Chinese People keep their traditional feasts fixed on the dates of the Chinese Lunar Calendar. These feasts are very vivid today such as the Spring Festivities, symbol of the arrival of the Chinese New Year.

    The Spring Festival takes place always on the first day of the first month on the Chinese Lunar Calendar. But the date on the solar calendar varies with the year. Il is always on January or February of the current year on the solar calendar, but its date can be obtained only by a very complex calculation of the dual movement of the Earth and of the Moon.

    In the Ancient Chinese History of 24 dynasties, the time has neither beginning, nor ending. Each dynasty hopes an infinite reign on time and each emperor starts counting by his first year of reign as year 1. For example, the Emperor KangXi of the Qing Dynasty counts his reign by KangXi year 1, KangXi year 2, KangXi year 3, .

    Nowadays, the Chinese have officially the Gregorian year. This is to say, the year 2021 for this year. But as the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) is considered as the Creator of the Chinese Nation, the population count also as Huangdi 4719 for this year.

    To know more about chinese feasts of the 4 seasons related to the chinese calendar, the chinese lunar calendar of my grand father would be a precious help.


    Watch the video: India record epic win


Comments:

  1. Guramar

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  2. Dokree

    Well written, learned a lot for myself, thank you for that!

  3. Zuluzilkree

    Can you please tell me where can I read about this?

  4. Mezinos

    Of course. It happens. We can communicate on this theme.

  5. Jujin

    I used to think differently, thanks a lot for the info.



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