František Bidlo

František Bidlo



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František Bidlo was born in Prague on 3rd September, 1895. He came from a poor family and was unable to complete his secondary education.

Bidlo became a hatter but during the First World War he fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Italian Front.

After the war he became a socialist and became a cartoonist for left-wing newspapers. He also contributed work to Simplicissimus and became a book illustrator.

Bidlo was a strong opponent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. In 1931 he upset Joseph Goebbels when he made a series of drawings that poked fun of his attempts to be a novelist.

Several of his cartoons dealt with events in Nazi Germany. This included drawings about the treatment of Jews. Bidlo also did work for the German Communist Party (KPD) but after Hitler came to power in 1933 he moved back to Prague.

When Adolf Hitler ordered the invasion of Czechoslovakia after the Munich Agreement of 1938 František Bidlo was forced to go into hiding. He was arrested and imprisoned in Terezin Fortress.

František Bidlo died of typhoid fever 9th May 1945.


Stock Data Structure

Header Identification and Summary Data is a set of variables, in a CRSPAccess stock database using CRSP C access functions, that identify an issue and summarize its classification. There is no time component to the header data so the data are valid the entire range of the issue. Header Identification and Summary Data contains the most current information on the issue maintained in the file. There is only one header structure per issue for any data iteration. Note that Ticker Symbol - Header only contains tickers for active securities.

Variable Name Variable
Primary Permanent Identifiers PERMCO permco
PERMNO permno
Secondary Permanent Identifiers CUSIP - Header hcusip
NASDAQ Company Number compno
NASDAQ Issue Number issuno
Security Date Ranges Begin of Stock Data begdt
End of Stock Data enddt
Most Recent Header Identification and Summary Data Information Company Name - Header hcomnam
Convertible Code - Header hconvcd
Country Code - Header hcntrycd
Eligibility Code - Header heligcd
Exchange Code - Header hexcd
Expiration Date hexpdt
Incorporation Code - Header hinccd
Interest Rate or Strike Price hrating
Intermarket Trading System Indicator - Header hits
Issue Description - Header hnamedesc
Issuer Code - Header hissuercd
Name Code - Header hnamecd
Name Description - Header hnamedesc
Name Flag - Header hnameflag
North American Industry Classification Code - Header hnaics
Primary Exchange - Header hprimexch
Security Status - Header hsecstat
Share Code - Header hshrcd
Share Type - Header hshrtype
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code - Header hsiccd
Sub-exchange - Header hsubexch
Ticker Symbol - Header (active securities only) htick
Trading Denomination - Header hdenom
Trading Ticker Symbol - Header htsymbol
Most Recent Listing Information Delisting Code - Header dlstcd
Trading Status - Header htrdstat

Name History Array - names

The Name History Array includes sets of identification variables effective at different times during the history of a security. Each set of information, or name structure, contains name and classification fields and the effective date ranges of those fields. Each security has at least one name structure.

Variable Name Variable
Secondary Identifiers CUSIP ncusip
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code naics
Ticker Symbol ticker
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code siccd
Date Range of Name History Record Name Effective Date namedt
Last Date of Name1 nameenddt
Identifying Information Company Name comnam
Convertible Code convcd
Country Code cntrycd
Eligibility Code eligcd
Exchange Code exchcd
Expiration Date expdt
Incorporation Code inccd
Interest Rate or Stricke Price rating
Intermarket Trading System Indicator its
Issuer Code issuercd
Name Code namecd
Name Description namedesc
Name Flag nameflag
Primary Exchange primexch
Security Status secstat
Share Class shrcls
Share Code shrcd
Share Type shrtype
Sub-exchange subexch
Trading Denomination denom
Trading Status trdstat
Trading Ticker Symbol tsymbol

If the CUSIP, Company Name, Exchange Code, Exchange Ticker Symbol, Share Class, or SIC Code changes during the security&rsquos trading history, a new name structure is added, with the Name Effective Date of the change. That information is valid until another name structure is added or the security becomes obsolete.

Name Histories may include periods, possibly outside the data range, when the security is trading on a different exchange or is not trading at all. The Exchange Code description contains more detailed information on trading status and location for a given date range.

Distribution Event Array - dists

The Distribution Event Array is a list of events describing cash dividends, capital adjustments, and other distributions made to shareholders of a security.

Variable Name Variable
Distribution Information Distribution Code DISTCD
Dividend Cash Amount DIVAMT
Factors to Adjust Prices and Shares Factor to Adjust Price FACPR
Factor to Adjust Shares Outstanding FACSHR
Dates Associated with the Distribution Distribution Declaration Date DCLRDT
Ex-Distribution Date EXDT
Record Date RCRDDT
Payment Date PAYDT
Securities/Companies Related to the Event Acquiring PERMNO1 ACPERM
Acquiring PERMCO1 ACCOMP

1 CRSPAccess variable only, available in C.

If a distribution event has more than one component, CRSP codes each component of the event separately with a four-digit code. All components of a distribution event share the same Ex-Distribution Date. Distributions for each security are unique and are sorted by Ex-Distribution Date, Distribution Code, and Acquiring PERMNO. Distribution Events are a descriptive set of events, not a summary by period. The data can be summarized for returns calculations, delisting returns, price and shares adjustments, and dividend and split totals. The following types of event are available:

  • Periodic and special cash dividends - the cash amount in US dollars, frequency, and related dates of all cash dividends are provided.
  • Stock splits, stock dividends, and reverse splits - the factors to adjust price and shares, type of action, and related dates of all splits are provided.
  • Spin-offs - All spin-off events are included. The cash value of the spin-off is the price at the end of the ex-distribution date of the stock received. A price factor is calculated by dividing the cash amount by the price of the parent security on the Ex-Distribution Date. Acquiring PERMNO and Acquiring PERMCO can be used to link to the new company when available.
  • Liquidation payments - All partial and final liquidation payments are included. These contain the value of each payment and relevant dates that are known. If the payment is in the form of stock, or if a payment is known to come from the purchase of assets by a known company, the Acquiring PERMNO and Acquiring PERMCO are set to that company or issue.
  • Return of capital distributions.
  • Rights offerings.
  • Merger, acquisition, and reorganization distributions.
  • Limited tender offers.
  • Information on announcements related to liquidations and tender offers that resulted in delistings.
  • Known shares buybacks, offerings, and share increases due to acquisitions.

See Distribution Codes for the coding scheme used by CRSP, as well as examples of specific cases of distributions.

Shares Outstanding Observations Array - shares

The Shares Outstanding Observations Array contains the history of observations of the shares outstanding history of a security. CRSP records the shares outstanding only for the security, not the total shares for the company. Treasury shares are not included. Shares outstanding for American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are the shares outstanding of the ADR, not the underlying issue. Shares outstanding are recorded in thousands.

Variable Name Variable
Shares Information Shares Outstanding SHROUT
Shares Outstanding Observation Flag SHRFLG
Share Observation Date Range Shares Outstanding Observation End Date1 SHRSENDDT
Shares Outstanding Observation Date SHRSDT

1 CRSPAccess data access only.

There are two types of Shares Outstanding Observations:

  1. Primary shares observations contain a shares outstanding amount taken directly from an annual or quarterly report or a data source using company reports.
  2. These are supplemented with imputed shares observations derived from distributions affecting shares outstanding using Factor to Adjust Shares.

A new entry does not imply that there was a change in the number of shares outstanding. In general, every company has at least one shares structure per year.

Exactly one shares structure is effective each date in the security&rsquos history. One shares outstanding observation is effective until the next observation or the delisting date. The first shares observation is effective from the Shares Observation Date backward to the beginning of data.

The Shares Outstanding Observations Array cannot be used to directly find the shares outstanding each calendar period. Utility functions and programs are available to map observations to time series used to calculate market capitalization.

Delisting Event Array - delist

Every security on the CRSP file is assigned one delist record. The Delisting Event Array contains information on the status of a security after it is no longer listed on an exchange in a CRSP file. Each delisting history event contains a code describing the reason for delisting, the value after delisting (when available), forward links to acquiring issue and company traded on NYSE, NYSE MKT, NASDAQ, or Arca and delisting return. Active issues have a delisting history event where Delisting Date is set to the last date of available price data. The Distribution History Array includes itemized data on the payments made to shareholders after the delisting, and includes announcement information related to the delisting when available.

Variable Name Variable
Delist Information Amount After Delisting dlamt
Delisting Code dlstcd
Delisting Price dlprc
Delisting Return dlret
Delisting Return without Dividends dlretx
Dates Assocaited with Delist Delisting Date dlstdt
Date of Next Available Information nextdt
Delisting Payment Date dlpdt
Securities/Companies Associated with Delist New PERMCO1 nwcomp
New PERMNO1 nwperm

In current CRSP files only the most recent delisting event is coded in the Delisting Event Array. If an issue leaves an exchange in the CRSP data files and later returns, the gap is marked in the Name History Array with an Exchange Code of 0. During this time, event data are not tracked and time series data are filled in with missing values.

Delisting information is determined by several factors: the exchange of shares at the earliest possible opportunity, trade on a secondary market, payments from the company, or outstanding tender offer. The information is coded as it becomes available. An issue is considered closed to further research if any of the following conditions apply:

  • Research has verified that a final distribution has been paid to stockholders.
  • A price is found on another exchange.
  • Research has verified that no distributions were ever paid to stockholders.
  • Some distributions have been paid to stockholders, but no final distribution information can be found and 10 years have passed since the date of the most recent delisting information.
  • No information concerning the delisting can be found and 10 years have passed since the delist date.

If none of these conditions applies to a delisted issue, the issue is pending, which means that further research is required until one of the above conditions has been met. If no information is found or the information found is incomplete, no delisting return will be calculated by CRSP.

Monthly: If no delisting information exists, and daily data exist after the last month-end trading date, CRSP generates partial-month delisting amounts and returns by using the price on the last daily trading date. Although the partial month returns are stored in the Delisting Return field, they are not delisting returns.

NASDAQ Information Array - nasdin

The NASDAQ Information Array contains a history of an issue&rsquos trading status on The NASDAQ Stock Market. Each set of information, or structure, contains status and classification fields and the effective date ranges of those fields. If the NASDAQ Traits Code, NASDAQ National Market Indicator, NASD Index Code, or Market Makers Count changes, then a new structure is added, and the date of the change is recorded in the NASDAQ Traits Date. Each issue traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market since November 1982 has at least one NASDAQ Information Array.

Variable Name Variable
NASDAQ Information Array Data Market Maker Count mmcnt
NASD Index Code nsdinx
NASDAQ National Market Indicator nmsind
NASDAQ Traits Code trtscd
NASDAQ Information Date Range NASDAQ Traits Date trtsdt
NASDAQ Traits End Date trtsenddt

NASDAQ information structures are available for securities trading on NASDAQ beginning on April 1, 1982 for NASDAQ Traits Date and NASDAQ National Market Indicator. All fields are available beginning November 1, 1982. 1

1 NASDAQ information data are missing in December, 1982 for all issues with NASD company numbers less than 1025 (approximately 20 percent of the securities active at that time), and are missing in February, 1986 for all issues. NASDAQ Traits Date, NASDAQ Traits Code, and NASDAQ National Market Indicator are complete. All other fields are missing.

The NASDAQ National Market was initiated in April 1982 for larger and generally more actively traded NASDAQ securities. The NASDAQ National Market Securities must meet higher financial and non-financial criteria than other NASDAQ stocks, and were always subject to last-sale reporting. In June of 1992 the regular NASDAQ segment of the NASDAQ Stock Market was renamed The NASDAQ SmallCap Market and for the first time these issues became subject to real-time price and volume reporting.

Price, Volume, and Return Time Series Arrays

Price, Volume, and Return Time Series Arrays are a set of time series that makes up the core of CRSP stock data. This includes three price time series, total returns, and trading volumes. All these time series in a stock file use the same calendar(s).

Variable Name Variable
Price, Volume, and Return Time Series Data Ask or High Price askhi
Bid or Low Price bidlo
Holding Period Total Return ret
Price or Bid/Ask Average prc
Volume Traded vol

Auxiliary Time Series Data

Auxiliary Data Time Series are additional time series provided in CRSPAccess stock files at the same frequency as the Price, Volume, and Return Time Series Arrays.

Variable Name Variable
Monthly Alternate Price and Date, Daily Open Price, Returns Without Dividends, Spread Time Series Data Price Alternate (monthly only) altprc
Price Alternate Date (monthly only) altprcdt
Return Without Dividends retx
Spread Between Bid and Ask (monthly only) spread
Open Price (daily only) openprc
Ask ask
Bid bid
NASDAQ Number of Trades (daily only) numtrd

Portfolio Statistics and Assignment Time Series - port

Portfolio Statistics and Assignment Time Series is a set of portfolio time series. Each portfolio time series is based on a portfolio type defined by CRSP and contains a history of statistics and portfolio assignments for a security. Two variables are available for each calendar period:

Variable Name Variable
Portfolio Statistic and Assignment Times Series Data Portfolio Assignment Number port
Portfolio Statistic Value stat

Each Portfolio Statistics and Assignment Time Series in the set is called a Portfolio Type. Portfolio Types are predefined groupings based on CRSP indexes. The portfolio time series can be linked to CRSP index returns data to calculate excess returns of a security against its assigned index portfolio at any time during its history.

Each Portfolio Type represents a predefined index group with its own methodology and rebalancing period. The portfolio time series can be linked to different calendars based on the rebalancing frequency of the index. The timing and calculation of the statistic and assignment rules are also dependent on the index. Calendars used in portfolios are not the same calendars used with security price and returns data. Portfolio ranges and calendars can differ for all portfolio types. In a portfolio time series, the Data Subtype Code is set to the Permanent Index Identification Number, INDNO, of an index that contains the performance results of the group of index series built using the assignments.

The portfolio assignments for the CRSP Stock File Decile Capitalization Indexes for NYSE/ NASDAQ are provided with daily and monthly stock files. Additional Portfolio Types are available with the CRSP US Index Database and Security Portfolio Assignment Module. Note that the portfolio information is a module of the associated CRSPAccess daily or monthly stock data. Portfolio assignment data for daily or monthly indexes can be extracted through the stock utilities when the user subscribes to the appropriate stock and index products. Indexes based on the portfolios are included in the CRSP Index File and Portfolio Assignments product.

See the Portfolio Types table for more details about the defined portfolios available in monthly and daily stock files.

Group Data

Group Data are a set of arrays of universe inclusion events. Each supported universe is called a grouptype and assigned an integer number that identifies it. The array for each grouptype lists the number of universe events and dates.

Variable Name Variable
Group Data Group Flag of Associated Index grpflag
Group Secondary Flag grpsubflag
Group Date Range Begin of Group Data grpdt
End of Group Data grpenddt

The only grouptype currently available is 16 - S&P 500 Universe. Only inclusion events are added to this group, so Group Flag of Associated Index is always 1. Begin of Group Data and End of Group Data identify the range the security was included in the S&P 500 index. The user must subscribe to the appropriate stock and index databases to extract group data.


Mike Bidlo at Francis M. Naumann Fine Art

S ince the 1980s, Mike Bidlo has been making work that questions the nature of authenticity and authorship. His meticulous copies of paintings by Pablo Picasso and Jackson Pollock, for example, beg viewers to marvel at their formal prowess before realizing that the works were produced not by modernist masters but by Bidlo himself. In other words, the art of these copies lies not in the object, but in the ideas about authorship that surround or imbue them. Analyze the object too closely, and it crumbles under pressure&mdashthe object itself deliberately has no substance.

This was likely the thought process behind Bidlo&rsquos Fractured Fountain (Not Duchamp Fountain 1917), 2015, a bronze redo of the French artist&rsquos famous readymade. (The Bidlo work is produced in an edition of eight, four of which are on view in this show.) Rather than just appropriating Duchamp&rsquos controversial sculpture, Bidlo takes the master&rsquos iconic urinal form and remakes it, using a new material, shattering it, and then imperfectly piecing it back together.

Bidlo&rsquos use of bronze evokes ancient Greek sculptures, which were copied by Romans and disseminated widely. Dramatically lit and shown on pedestals, the Fractured Fountain works are like sacred relics.

Installed nearby is Gilded Bottle Rack (Not Duchamp Bottle Rack 1924), 2015, a chrome-plated bottle rack that builds on the cool, conceptual logic of Fractured Fountain. (These, too, are editioned, but no two are identical.) What makes this a Bidlo work, and not simply a Duchamp knockoff, is not that there is more than one bottle rack (Duchamp made copies of his own works), but that sculptures vary in size. Some are big, some are small&mdashthat&rsquos all that differentiates them from the Dada bottle-rack sculpture.

Is it possible to create an original gesture in Bidlo&rsquos world? Perhaps, but only if you lay waste to art history, which is precisely what Bidlo does in the final work of this show&mdashFlattened Bottle Rack (2016), a steamrolled version of Gilded Bottle Rack.

In many ways, Bidlo&rsquos work seems somewhat dated. It&rsquos specific to a certain moment, sometime around the late &rsquo70s or early &rsquo80s, when postmodern theorists wrote that true authorship was no longer possible&mdashevery original artistic act had already been done. Since then, younger artists have shifted those same concerns away from art history, toward the Internet and new technology, but Bidlo, a Pictures Generation stalwart, sticks to his guns here.


Personality and traits [ edit | edit source ]

Bidlo Kwerve was considered a thug, and he had a brash, aggressive nature. Insults against him rarely went unpunished, and he had a cruel sense of humor he taunted Han Solo after the pilot had dropped his cargo and earned Jabba's wrath. Δ] Kwerve was thought to be extremely lucky, a trait many believed was shared by most Corellians, and this was one of the reasons Bib Fortuna loathed him so. Ώ] He rarely spoke Malakili reckoned this was because he had a high, raspy, and whiny voice. Kwerve was thought to be very greedy, always looking out for himself unlike Fortuna, he did not have the presence of mind to decline Jabba's offer of a "greater honor," instead claiming it for himself, ultimately to his own detriment. He was also an opportunist when he heard about the downed ship in the desert, he traveled there personally to investigate, hoping to turn things to his advantage. His appearance reflected his uncouth nature, with wild, ragged black hair and a face pockmarked with numerous scars and sores, including one long scar from a blaster wound. Α]


Life and career

Mussorgsky was the son of a landowner but had peasant blood, his father’s grandmother having been a serf. According to his autobiographical sketch, written in 1881, Mussorgsky learned about Russian fairy tales from his nurse. “This early familiarity with the spirit of the people, with the way they lived, lent the first and greatest impetus to my musical improvisations.” His mother, herself an excellent pianist, gave Modest his first piano lessons, and at seven he could play some of Franz Liszt’s simpler pieces.

In August 1849 his father took Modest and his other son, Filaret, to St. Petersburg, where Modest attended the Peter-Paul School in preparation for a military career. At the same time, mindful of Modest’s musical bent, their father entrusted the boys to Anton Gerke, future professor of music at the St. Petersburg Conservatory.

In 1852 Mussorgsky entered the School for Cadets of the Guard. There, in his first year he composed his Podpraporshchik ( Porte-Enseigne Polka), published at his father’s expense. Although not the most industrious of students, he gave proof of tremendous curiosity and wide-ranging intellectual interests.

In 1856, by now a lieutenant, Mussorgsky joined the Preobrazhensky Guards, one of Russia’s most aristocratic regiments, where he made the acquaintance of several music-loving officers who were habitués of the Italian theatre. During this same period he came to know Aleksandr Borodin, a fellow officer who was to become another important Russian composer. Borodin has provided a very vivid picture of the musician:

There was something absolutely boyish about Mussorgsky he looked like a real second-lieutenant of the picture books … a touch of foppery, unmistakable but kept well within bounds. His courtesy and good breeding were exemplary. All the women fell in love with him. … That same evening we were invited to dine with the head surgeon of the hospital. … Mussorgsky sat down to the piano and played … very gently and graciously, with occasional affected movements of the hands, while his listeners murmured, “charming! delicious!”

During the winter of 1856 a regimental comrade introduced Mussorgsky into the home of the Russian composer Aleksandr Dargomyzhsky. At one of the musicales there, Mussorgsky discovered the music of the seminal Russian composer Mikhail Glinka, and this quickened his own Russophile inclinations. Three years later, in June 1859, he saw the Moscow Kremlin for the first time, an important experience that represented his first “physical” communion with Russian history. Through Dargomyzhsky, Mussorgsky met another composer, Mily Balakirev, who became his teacher. Since the death of their father (in 1853), the Mussorgsky brothers had seen their poorly administered patrimony decrease substantially. With the freeing of the serfs in 1861, it vanished. Having decided to devote himself to music, Modest Mussorgsky had quit the army three years earlier and since 1863 had been working as a civil servant in the Ministry of Communications. His distressing financial troubles date from that time, and he had to seek the help of moneylenders.

Mussorgsky achieved artistic maturity in 1866 with a series of remarkable songs about ordinary people such as “Darling Savishna,” “Hopak,” and “The Seminarist,” and an even larger series appeared the following year. Another work dating from this time is the symphonic poem Ivanova noch na Lysoy gore (1867 Night on Bald Mountain). In 1868 he reached the height of his conceptual powers in composition with the first song of his incomparable cycle Detskaya ( The Nursery) and a setting of the first few scenes of Nikolay Gogol’s Zhenitba ( The Marriage).

In 1869 he began his great work Boris Godunov to his own libretto based on the drama by Aleksandr Pushkin. The first version, completed in December 1869, was rejected by the advisory committee of the imperial theatres because it lacked a prima donna role. In response, the composer subjected the opera to a thorough revision and in 1872 put the finishing touches to the second version, adding the roles of Marina and Rangoni as well as several new episodes. The first production of Boris took place on February 8, 1874, at St. Petersburg and was a success.

In 1865, after the death of his mother, he lived with his brother, then shared a small flat with the Russian composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov until 1872, when his colleague married. Left very much alone, Mussorgsky began to drink to excess, although the composition of the opera Khovanshchina perhaps offered some distraction (left unfinished at his death, this opera was completed by Rimsky-Korsakov). Mussorgsky then found a companion in the person of a distant relative, Arseny Golenishchev-Kutuzov. This impoverished 25-year-old poet inspired Mussorgsky’s two cycles of melancholy melodies, Bez solntsa ( Sunless) and Pesni i plyaski smerti ( Songs and Dances of Death). At that time Mussorgsky was haunted by the spectre of death—he himself had only seven more years to live. The death of another friend, the painter Victor Hartmann, inspired Mussorgsky to write the piano suite Kartinki s vystavki ( Pictures from an Exhibition orchestrated in 1922 by the French composer Maurice Ravel).

The last few years of Mussorgsky’s life were dominated by his alcoholism and by a solitude made all the more painful by Golenishchev-Kutuzov’s marriage. Nonetheless, the composer began his opera Sorochinskaya yarmarka (unfinished Sorochintsy Fair), inspired by Gogol’s tale. As the accompanist of an aging singer, Darya Leonova, Mussorgsky departed on a lengthy concert tour of southern Russia and the Crimean Peninsula. On his return he tried teaching at a small school of music in St. Petersburg.

On February 24, 1881, three successive attacks of alcoholic epilepsy laid him low. His friends took him to a hospital where for a time his health improved sufficiently for one of the leading Russian artists of the day, Ilya Repin, to paint a famous portrait of him. Mussorgsky’s health was irreparably damaged, however, and he died within a month, shortly after his 42nd birthday.


Summary of Robert Rosenblum

Robert Rosenblum's career as a critic, teacher and curator was defined by his insistence on challenging accepted norms of Modern art and its history. He began his writing career in Art News, Art International, and other similar publications. Rosenblum believed that Modernism had a much longer history than people assumed, and in offering this perspective, he significantly reordered the way in which most people studied art movements. Instead of examining and judging works of art within time-specific frameworks, Rosenblum tended to critique art regardless of its associated movement or place in history.

  • Rosenblum identified the history of Modern art as dating back to the French, German and Danish painters (who worked mostly in the Neo-Classical style) of the late 18th-century
  • Rosenblum considered "postmodernism" as an era in which people loved and consumed art on a scale never seen before in the U.S., yet appreciated it more as a luxury or trivial entertainment, rather than as something socially and culturally significant.
  • According to Rosenblum, the foundation of Abstract Expressionism was based on a mythology of total and apocalyptic devastation, which encouraged many artists to search for meaning in art and basic symbolism. Given this mythology that so heavily informed the AbEx movement, Rosenblum believed that contemporary artists were unable to achieve an equally poignant, personal sense of abstraction in their work.

Robert Rosenblum was born in New York City to Abraham H. Rosenblum, a dentist, and Lily M. Lipkin. After serving in the United States Army from 1945-1946, immediately following the end of World War II, Rosenblum returned home and enrolled in Queens College. He later earned his Master's degree in Art History from Yale University in 1950, and his Ph.D. in Art History from New York University, where he wrote his dissertation on the German art historian Walter Friedlander [Friedlaender].

Rosenblum held several teaching positions after receiving his Ph.D., first at the University of Michigan, followed by Princeton, where he taught until 1966. The following year he was appointed to Professor of Fine Arts at NYU (his graduate alma mater), where he remained for the duration of his career.

In February 1961, Rosenblum caused a stir in the art world when he coined the term "The Abstract Sublime," (also the title of an article he wrote for Art News). The term was used to characterize the feelings and emotions evoked by the works of artists like Rothko, Pollock, Still and Newman. The article was a response in many ways not only to Newman's 1950-51 painting, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, but also to an article Newman had written in 1948 for Tiger's Eye entitled, "The Sublime is Now."

Of Vir Heroicus Sublimis, Rosenblum wrote, "[it] achieves a simplicity and as heroic and sublime as the protagonist of its title. Yet again, as with Still, Rothko and Pollock, such a rudimentary vocabulary creates bafflingly complex results .. Like the other three Masters of the Abstract Sublime, Newman bravely abandons the securities of familiar pictorial geometries in favor of the risks of untested pictorial institutions and like them, he produces awesomely simple mysteries that evoke the primeval movement of creation." These "Masters," as Rosenblum referred to them, have created a new painterly language, a new "geometric vocabulary" as he phrased it, in which they deconstructed Cubism and essentially spread all the pieces across and throughout their canvases.

In 1967 Rosenblum revisited his dissertation and published an expanded version entitled Transformations in Late Eighteenth-Century Art. This book confirmed Rosenblum's place as a preeminent scholar of art history, but the work was by no means a formal study of European artistic styles. Instead, Rosenblum argued that the history of Modern art was older and more inclusive than what the academy of art history supposed.

In 1996 Rosenblum was appointed curator of 20th-Century Art at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. It was there that Rosenblum undertook some of his most groundbreaking work as an art historian.

The 1900: Art at the Crossroads Exhibition
In 2000 Rosenblum curated the exhibition, 1900: Art at the Crossroads. This show contained nearly 150 paintings from Japan, Africa, Australia, Western Europe and the Americas, and included works by the Modern "masters" Cézanne, Picasso and Kandinsky. Never had such a seemingly random hodgepodge of turn-of-the-century styles been displayed side by side. Rosenblum was quoted as saying, "I wanted to reshuffle the deck and re-examine our image of the period." Although the exhibition received a tepid response from critics, and some even accused Rosenblum of showboating, the non-linear and non-geographical grouping of artworks was perceived as a postmodern curatorial effort.

The Norman Rockwell Exhibition
The following year, Rosenblum surpassed his previously daring act by curating, seemingly incomprehensibly, an exhibition of Norman Rockwell paintings and drawings at the Guggenheim. Kenneth Silver, the chairman of undergraduate studies at NYU, commented that, "Getting Rockwell into the Guggenheim was almost a Dada act, the crowning achievement of Rosenblumian contrariness - dare I call it perversity?" The Rockwell show was in many ways the encapsulation of Rosenblum's opinions about Modern art. While he was undoubtedly a fan of the Abstract Expressionists and subsequent movements, he firmly believed that the AbEx style and approach to art as a whole was too ideologically rigid, and had caused many critics, scholars and even artists to ignore what was occurring (and had occurred) outside the New York School. By placing Rockwell's work in the Guggenheim, Rosenblum was validating the artist and his style as having a firm place in the canon of twentieth century modern art, who was just as deserving of consideration as the Abstract Expressionists who had previously monopolized so much critical attention.

Rosenblum received a Distinguished Teaching Award from NYU in 2005. He continued to teach, write reviews, and curate exhibitions on both sides of the Atlantic, and throughout the U.S. right up until his death from colon cancer in 2006.

Despite having studied art history at Yale (their curriculum is renowned for favoring strict theoretical rules and genre-based study), and taught at Princeton (one of the last schools to formally recognize Modern art as a scholarly field), Rosenblum became a critic and historian who broke from tradition in nearly every way. He curated exhibitions in which works by the French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists were displayed next to works by traditional Salon artists he challenged the established formal notion that Modernism began at the turn of the 20th century he took works by Rockwell (what Greenberg famously referred to as "kitsch") and placed them on the walls of the Guggenheim. Rosenblum constantly confronted formal ideas of Modernism and even art history itself, and challenged those in the art world (from the average museum-goer to the trained historian) to view Modern art as a vast well of ideas rather than a teleological timeline. In this sense, Rosenblum was a model postmodern critic.

Rosenblum offered an alternative viewpoint to the origins of Modernism, and concluded that Modern art itself did not begin with the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, as had been previously assumed by historians (and still is to a considerable degree), but with 18th-century French artists. It was during this era, Rosenblum argued, that visual culture underwent a monumental shift, where artists working in the Rococo and Neoclassical style experimented with perspective and representation in an unprecedented manner. (Later in life Rosenblum altered this perspective to include late 18th-century German and Danish painters in the unofficial birth of Modernism as well.)

Rosenblum was the quintessential anti-formalist. Although many critics and fellow academics of his day considered him a staunch radical, Rosenblum did not necessarily favor radical new forms of art over classic styles. His love of all art, from Neo-Classical to Abstract, from kitsch and commercial art to high art, resulted in his prevailing theory that the history of Modern art was more than just one endlessly renewing movement after the other. Modern art history, in Rosenblum's view, was as his NYU colleague Kenneth Silver once said, "a smorgasbord" of styles, philosophies and viewpoints that should include the works of Norman Rockwell just as easily it does works by Picasso, Kandinsky or Pollock.

Below are Rosenblum's major influences, and the people and ideas that he influenced in turn.


The Fountain Drawings

Perhaps the most infamous object in the history of 20th century art is Duchamp's Fountain. Rosetta stone to the avant-garde, Duchamp's 1917 urinal redefined, in one bold conceptual stroke, the possibilities of art forever after -- entering modern consciousness, and signifying the start of a counter-tradition of ready-mades, anti-art, and conceptualism that is 80 years old. It is therefore appropriate that artist Mike Bidlo, who has in the past made appropriations of legendary artworks (by Picasso, Man Ray, Brancusi, etc.), . Read More

Perhaps the most infamous object in the history of 20th century art is Duchamp's Fountain. Rosetta stone to the avant-garde, Duchamp's 1917 urinal redefined, in one bold conceptual stroke, the possibilities of art forever after -- entering modern consciousness, and signifying the start of a counter-tradition of ready-mades, anti-art, and conceptualism that is 80 years old. It is therefore appropriate that artist Mike Bidlo, who has in the past made appropriations of legendary artworks (by Picasso, Man Ray, Brancusi, etc.), here focuses his attentive eye on Fountain. This book catalogues the surprising results of Bidlo's homage, and taken together, these 300+ drawings bring out both the totemic and painterly qualities of Fountain. The book includes an extensive discussion between Bidlo and critics Arthur Danto and Francis Naumann. Read Less


The Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944

There is in some places a perception that hurricanes are frequent visitors to the Outer Banks . They’re not. They are a part of life here, but their appearance is more the exception than the norm.

Most of them come and go, usually with some power disruptions, tree limbs down, and a lot of clean up. Not all of them, of course—Dorian being the most recent example of a storm that will be embedded in our memory for some time.

Yet Dorian, as destructive as it was, has not been the only storm to ravage the Outer Banks . It may not have even been the most destructive.

The Great Atlantic Storm of 1944 was one of the most powerful storms to ever strike the eastern United States.

Mail packet boat hard aground on Ocracoke

The September 14 storm never quite made landfall on the Outer Banks, but came so close to Cape Hatteras that the western edge of the eyeball passed over Hatteras Island . There were reports of residents thinking the storm had passed and going outside, caught in the sudden 100 mph plus gusts from the northwest as the wall passed.

Wind speeds of 110mph were recorded at the Hatteras Weather Station and the mercury sank to 27.97”.

After passing the Outer Banks , the storm accelerated quickly NNE passing over Long Island as a category 3 storm then taking aim on New England.

The damage to the Outer Banks and adjacent waters was extraordinary.

“Island and the Banks Isolated from the World by Thursday Storm” the page one headline read for the Friday, September 15 Dare County Times. The page two headline told of the devastation on Ocracoke . “ Red Cross Goes to Aid of Storm-Wrecked Ocracoke in Hyde” the headline read.

“Area representatives…went to Ocracoke Saturday and made a survey of the damage. They report much destruction and on their arrival found the island without drinking water and only enough food for one day,” the paper reported.

The situation on the Outer Banks was bad, but not nearly so dire.

The storm “…swept away the power lines and piles across Currituck Sound and Roanoke Sound ,” the paper reported leaving the area without power or phones.

Equally as devastating—perhaps even more so—all the bridges connecting Manteo with the mainland and the Outer Banks were damaged and could not be used. Farther north at Coinjock , “Lower Currituck and Dare County were cut off from travel facilities, when a barge blown before the wind, crashed into the bridge at Coinjock , damaging the locks so badly that it will take two or three days before the bridge can be restored…”

Not reported in the paper, probably because communication was so difficult with phone lines down, was the disaster that had occurred in Avon .

Hoping to protect the village from the sea, the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) had built a sand dike along the beach. When the eye passed and the winds shifted to the northwest, a wall of water from Pamlico Sound rushed in. Before the dike had been built, the water would have washed out to sea, but now, with no place to go, the flood was devastating, damaging almost every home and business in Avon .

Remarkably only one person died in North Carolina and that tragically was in Nags Head . “No lives were lost…except L. S. Parkerson, the widely known and popular hotel manager at Nags Head who was electrocuted by a wire that had fallen on his car,” the Times reported.

The story at sea, though, was far direr.

The story of the US Coast Guard Cutters Jackson and Bedloe is one of the most tragic of the war.

US Coast Guard Cutters Jackson

The ships had gone to escort the liberty ship George Ade, which had been damaged by a torpedo attack. Under tow by a Navy ocean-going tug, the ships were making for Norfolk when the full fury of the storm struck.

Seas running as high as 50’-100’ were reported and the winds were sustained between 100-125 mph. The 125’ cutters, built in the 1920s to interdict rum runners during prohibition were no match for the Atlantic Ocean .

The Bedloe was overwhelmed first, sinking at 10:30 a.m. on September 14. Two and a half hours later, the Jackson followed her mate, slipping beneath the waves at 1:00 p.m.

Most of the men were able to get off the ships, but what followed were two excruciating days at sea as rescuers searched frantically for survivors. Of the 38 officers and men on the Bedloe, only 12 survived. There were 37 crewmen on the Jackson 20 were rescued.


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