Craven III DD- 382 - History

Craven III DD- 382 - History


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Craven III
(DD-382: dp. 1,860; 1. 341'2"; b. 35'6"; dr. 10'4"; s. 38.6
k.; cpl. 158; a. 4 5", 16 21" tt.; cl. Gridley)

The third Craven (DD-382) was launched 26 February 1937 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. F. Learned, daughter of Commander Craven, and commissioned 2 September 1937, Lieutenant Commander W. O. Bailey in command.

After training in the Caribbean and along the east coast and experimental torpedo firing at Newport Craven departed Norfolk 16 August 1938 to join the fleet at San Diego. From 4 January to 17 July 1939 she cruised to the Caribbean on maneuvers and fleet problems, and to the east coast for visits, but otherwise operated off the west coast. From 1 April 1940 she was based at Pearl Harbor where she joined in fleet exercises and served as antisubmarine screen for carriers.

When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor Craven was at sea with Enterprise (CV-6) proceeding from Wake Island to Pearl Harbor. Craven joined in the raids on the Marshalls and Gilberts, 1 February 1942 and on Wake Island, 24 February. After overhaul on the west coast, on 8 April she returned to convoy duty and west coast operations.

Cravern sailed from Pearl Harbor 12 November 1942 to join in the fierce struggle for Guadalcanal, escorting transports to that island for the next 9 months. On 6 and q August 1943 she joined in the successful sweep of Vella Gulf which sank three Japanese destroyers and damaged a cruiser.

Craven departed Efate 23 September 1943 for San Francisco and overhaul. Returning to Pearl Harbor, she sortied 19 January 1944 to screen the carriers of TF 58 during air strikes on Woffe, Taroa, and Eniwetok in February supporting the invasion of the Marshall Islands. From the newly won base at Majuro, Craven sailed to screen carriers in heavy strikes on Palau, Yap, Ulithi, Woleni, covered the invasion of Hollandia, and raided Truk, Satawan, and Ponape through April. After a voyage to Pearl Harbor in May, Craven rejoined the 5th Fleet for the invasion of the Marianas. She screened the softening up strikes on Guam, Saipan, and Rota, and the supporting raids on the Bonins, as well as guarded the carriers with protective antiaircraft fire during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June. Craven continued to guard the carriers during the air strikes of July, August and September on the Bonins, Guam, Yap, and the Palaus.

Returning to Pearl Harbor 11 October 1944, Craven had overhaul and training, then sailed from Pearl Harbor 2 January 1945. She arrived at New York 26 January for exercises and antisubmarine patrol on the Past coast until 2 May when she sailed to Southampton England, as convoy escort, returning to New York 29 May. She departed Portland, Maine, 22 June to carry the U.S. Minister to Tangier, and continued to Oran.

Craven ranged throughout the Mediterranean on escort, training, and transport duties until 14 January 1946 when she cleared for New York, arriving 28 January. She weighed anchor 20 February for San Diego and Pearl Harbor where she arrived 16 March. Craven was decommissioned there 19 April 1946, and sold 2 October 1947.

Craven received nine battle stars for World War II 'service.


USS Craven (DD-382)

USS Craven (DD-382) là một tàu khu trục lớp Gridley được Hải quân Hoa Kỳ chế tạo vào giữa những năm 1930. Nó là chiếc tàu chiến thứ ba của Hải quân Hoa Kỳ được đặt tên theo Trung tá Hải quân Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven (1813-1865), người tham gia cuộc Chiến tranh Mexico-Hoa Kỳ và tử trận trong cuộc Nội chiến Hoa Kỳ. Craven đã phục vụ hầu hết tại Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai trước khi được chuyển sang Đại Tây Dương, được cho ngừng hoạt động năm 1946 và bị bán để tháo dỡ năm 1947.

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như chế tạo: 4 × pháo 5 in (130 mm)/38 caliber trên bệ Mk 21 đa dụng (5×1)
4 × súng máy Browning M2.50-caliber (4×1)


Commanding OfficerUSS HEERMANN (DD 532)

Amos T. Hathaway was born on December 5, 1913 in Pueblo, Colorado, the son of James A. and Nina North Hathaway. His hometown was Chevy Chase, Maryland. He was a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and Duke University.

His first sea duty assignment was on battleship USS Mississippi (BB 41). In the late 1930s he served on the destroyer USS Craven (DD 382) and light cruiser USS Boise (CL 47).

During World War 2 he first served as Navigator, then Executive Officer of the high-speed minesweeper USS Zane (DMS-14). Later he was assigned as the Executive Officer of USS Hoel (DD-533).

In April 1944 Commander Hathaway was assigned as Commanding Officer of the Fletcher Class destroyer USS Heermann (DD 532). For the next month she divided her time between protecting troop and resupply convoys which were occupying Emirau Island and hunting enemy supply barges along the coast of New Hanover. Back in Port Purvis 3 June, Heermann participated in the bombardment of a tank farm on Fangelawa Bay, New Ireland, 11 June, and then searched for submarines along sealanes leading from the Solomons towards the Admiralties, the Carolines, and the Marshall Islands until 26 June. The summer of 1944 found Heermann busy escorting Navy and Merchant shipping to rendezvous where they joined convoys bound for various ports. This duty took Commander Hathaway to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides Islands and Noumea, New Caledonia Island. Heermann cleared Port Purvis 6 September 1944 with Rear Admiral William D. Sample's escort carrier force that provided air support during the invasion of the Palau Islands.

After replenishing at Seeadler Harbor, Admiralty Islands, Commander Hathaway sortied on 12 October 1944 with a fire support group for the liberation of the Philippine Islands. Heermann screened transports and landing ships safely to the beaches of Leyte and then joined Rear Admiral Thomas L. Sprague's Escort Carrier Group (Task Group 77.4).

At the outset of the Battle Off Samar the ship laid protective smoke in the rear of the escort carriers of Task Unit 77.4.3 with the smaller destroyer escorts. He bravely turned Heermann to attack the heavy cruisers and battleships of the IJN Centre Force. Although none of the torpedoes found their target, almost better results were realized. The mighty Japanese battleship HIJMS YAMATO was forced to comb Heermann's torpedo wakes and was subsequently placed out of position for the remainder of the action. After her torpedoes were expended, Commander Hathaway bravely engaged the Japanese warships with 5-inch gunfire. Heermann was hit several times and was notably down by the bow before the action concluded. Heermann was the only surviving destroyer of Taffy III. For his actions in the battle he was awarded the Navy Cross and as a member of the Task Unit a Presidential Unit Citation.

Commander Hathaway served as Executive Officer of the cruiser USS Saint Paul (CA-73) from November 1950 to July 1951 during the Korean War. During this time he was awarded the Legion of Merit by the U.S. Army. In the 1950s he served as Commander of Destroyer Division 92.

His shore duty billets include Staff at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island Logistics Commander at Far East Command General Headquarters in Tokyo, Japan and Director, Logistics Plans Division for the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington, DC in 1960.

His final sea duty billets were as Chief of Staff, Commander Carrier Division 16 in USS Valley Forge (CV-45) and Commanding Officer of the gun cruiser USS Rochester CA-124) from August 1959 to June 1960.

After he retired from the Naval service he served as a professor at The Citadel military college in Charleston, SC from 1966 to 1979 where he taught fundamental mathematics and computer science.

Captain Hathaway passed away on August 26, 1996 at a nursing home in Charleston, South Carolina at the age of 82. He was interred at Arlington National Cemetery in section 12 plot 8533-7 on September 6, 1996.


Battle of Vella Gulf, 6 August 1943

The battle of Vella Gulf (6 August 1943) was a clear American victory that crushed one of the last attempts by the 'Tokyo Express' to get reinforcements to the remaining Japanese garrisons in the New Georgia Islands.

On 5 August the vital airfield at Munda on the south-western tip of New Georgia finally fell to the Americans, but there were still Japanese troops elsewhere on that island, and a strong garrison on Kolombangara, the next island to the west. The Japanese were still determined to get reinforcements onto Kolombangara, and despatched four destroyers under Captain Kaju Sugiura to Kolombangara. His flagship, the Shigure, carried no troops, but the Hagikaze, Arashi and Kawakaze carried 900 troops and 50 tons of supplies between them.

The Americans were expecting the Tokyo Express to run on the night of 6-7 August. On previous occasions (battle of Kulf Gulf, 6 July 1943 and battle of Kolombangara, 13 July 1943) they had sent a mixed force of cruisers and destroyers to intercept the Japanese, but these battles had been costly draws. Admiral Aisworth lost one cruiser in the first battle and had three damaged in the second and his division had not yet been rebuilt. The other cruiser division in the area was too far away to take part in the night's operations, so the job was given to Commander Frederick Moosbrugger and six destroyers from Destroyer Division 12 (Dunlap (DD-384), Craven (DD-382), Maury (DD-401), Lang (DD-399), Sterett (DD-407), and Stack (DD-406).

Moosbrugger was confident that his destroyers would be more successful now that they had been freed from the need to operate with cruisers. Moosbrugger split his destroyers into two columns. He commanded three torpedo armed destroyers, and would lead the attack if the Japanese sent destroyers themselves. Commander Rodger Simpson commanded the other three destroyers, which had replaced some of their torpedoes with quad 40mm guns. He would take the lead if the Japanese used barges.

Moosbrugger was briefed on the possibility that the Japanese had better torpedoes than the Americans (the existence of the Long Lance torpedo, which had twice the range of its American equivalents was still only a rumour to the Americans), and was advised to concentrate on long range gunnery, but his division had practised radar controlled night torpedo attacks and he was determined to stick to that plan.

Moosbrugger's destroyers entered Vella Gulf from the south at ten in the evening of 6 August. After checking the southern approaches they turned north and sailed up the gulf. At 23.33 they picked up the Japanese destroyers on radar, ten miles to their north at the northern end of the gulf. Moosbrugger ordered his ships to turn to 335 degrees so they could close into torpedo range. At 23.41 he ordered the three ships in his division to fire their torpedoes, and twenty four weapons were soon in the water. He then ordered a ninety degree turn to the right to get out of the way of any incoming Japanese torpedoes.

Moosbrugger needn't have worried. For once the Japanese were caught out. They were convinced that the nearest American ships would be at the southern end of the gulf. They finally spotted the American destroyers just after they had turned away. The Shigure, unburdened by troops, managed to fire eight torpedoes at 23.45, but all eight missed.

The three troop carrying destroyers were all hit by American torpedoes. Hagikaze and Arashi were both hit in fire rooms, while the Kawakaze was hit in one of her magazines and suffered a devastating explosion. Within a few minutes she rolled over and sank. Simpson's destroyers now came into action, firing their guns and torpedoes at the stricken Hagikaze and Arashi. Moosbrugger soon joined in and by midnight both Japanese ships had stopped firing.

That only left the Shigure. She reloaded her torpedo tubes in 23 minutes and turned back towards the fray, but at 0.10am on 7 August she saw the Arashi's magazines explode. She also heard an American reconnaissance aircraft overhead and assumed that her sister ships were being bombed. This was enough to convince her captain to retreat, and he escaped to the north-west. Eight minutes later the Hagikaze, now the target of all eight American destroyers, also exploded.

An attempt to rescue some of the Japanese survivors ended in failure. After half an hour none of the swimming survivors had been willing to enter captivity and at 2.00am the Americans gave up the attempt. Only 300 of the 1,800 Japanese sailors and soldiers on the four destroyers survived the battle.

As always the Americans overestimated their success, believing that they had also sunk a cruiser, but their real success was impressive enough. The 'Tokyo Express' didn't attempt to land any more reinforcements and the remaining troops on New Georgia and Kolombangara were left to their own devices, until eventually the survivors were evacuated.


What was the most courageous independent action by a U.S. Navy surface ship in combat?

Of the countless acts of valor in our Navy’s history, the USS Johnston’s (DD-557) daylight torpedo attack during the Battle off Samar stands out as uniquely courageous. Although in company with other ships, the Johnston broke formation under the orders of her captain, Lieutenant Commander Ernest Evans. Evans repeatedly interposed his battered ship between Japanese forces and the ships he was protecting, fighting his ship to the very end.

Trent Hone

Author of Learning War: The Evolution of Fighting Doctrine in the U.S. Navy, 1898–1945

On the afternoon of 1 March 1942, Lieutenant Joshua Nix’s USS Edsall (DD-219), the old Asiatic Fleet destroyer, ran afoul of Japanese battleships and heavy cruisers. Nix and his crew fought for 90 minutes—laying smoke, firing obsolete four-inch guns, and making desperate torpedo attacks—but the Edsall ultimately succumbed to a combination of dive-bombing and surface gunfire. The Japanese rescued and then executed about 40 of the Edsall’s crew none survived.

Admiral Phil Davidson

U.S. Navy, Commander, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command

In May 1944, the Buckley-class destroyer escort USS England (DE-635) sank six Japanese submarines in 12 days, an unmatched accomplishment in the history of antisubmarine warfare. Her Presidential Unit Citation stated, “The USS England skillfully coordinated her attacks with other vessels and with cooperating aircraft, striking boldly, and with exceptional precision at the enemy.” This singularly remarkable feat reflects the fighting spirit of our Navy.

Salvatore R. Mercogliano, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of History, Campbell University

On a run from Cape Town to Surinam on 27 September 1942, the WWII Liberty ship SS Stephen Hopkins with a Navy armed guard encountered the Nazi raider Stier and her supply ship Tannenfels. In a running gunfight, with merchant marine cadet Edwin O’Hara manning the aft gun, the Stephen Hopkins and the Tannenfels sank. O’Hara and 30 others lost their lives.

Vice Admiral Richard A. Brown

U.S. Navy, Commander, Naval Surface Forces

The crew of the USS Johnston (DD-557), led by a fighting captain, Lieutenant Commander Ernest Evans, demonstrated the best example of a courageous and battle-minded crew during the Battle off Samar during the Leyte Gulf campaign. Evans and his crew fought tenaciously for three hours against a larger enemy. He was last seen yelling steering orders through a hatch to aft steering before going down with the ship.

Narayan Sengupta

Historian and Technologist

On 8 March 1862, the ironclad CSS Virginia, constructed from the USS Merrimack’s hulk, smoked three powerful Union ships, becoming the world’s greatest warship. The next day, the USS Monitor, with a fraction of the Virginia’s size, crew, and guns, spent hours dueling her to a convincing draw. The two never fought each other again.

Midshipman Tyler Lacroix

U.S. Navy Reserve, University of Colorado, Boulder NROTC

The river gunboat USS Carondelet sneaking past 50 Confederate guns at
Island Number 10 in the Mississippi River near Tiptonville, Tennessee, on 4 April 1862. On a rainy and moonless night, Commander Henry A. Walke navigated his ship through deadly waters. He memorized the path ahead via flashes of lightning before being fired on and completing the run at max speed.

William Prom

Former captain, U.S. Marine Corps

Disguised as a Maltese merchant, the 64-ton ketch USS Intrepid slid under the Tripoli Harbor guns and pulled alongside the captured frigate USS Philadelphia late on 16 February 1804. Within 20 minutes Lieutenant Stephen Decatur’s crew snuck on board, dispatched the Tripolitan guards, set the frigate aflame, and escaped past the harbor defenses.

Edward J. Marolda

Former Director of Naval History (Acting)

The spontaneous attack by the destroyer USS Johnston (DD-557), commanded by Lieutenant Commander Ernest E. Evans, on Japanese Admiral Kurita’s powerful battle force during the pivotal World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944. Until sunk by heavy enemy gunfire, the Johnston gave as good as she got with torpedoes and gunfire. 186 officers and enlisted sailors paid the ultimate price for their valor.

Lieutenant Commander James B. Craven III, USNA ‘64

U.S. Naval Reserve (Retired)

On 25 October 1944, in the Battle off Samar, seven destroyers, the “small boys” of Taffy 3, interposed themselves between the U.S. carriers and almost the entire remaining force of the Japanese fleet, consisting of three battleships, eight cruisers, and other small ships. The courageous force of the “small boys” was led by the USS Johnston (DD-557), commanded by Lieutenant Commander Ernest E. Evans (USNA ’31), a Cherokee warrior from Oklahoma. The Johnston was closest to the Japanese and armed with ten torpedoes. Evans broadcast his orders to the ship: “All hands to general quarters. prepare to attack major portion of the Japanese fleet All engines ahead flank Commence making smoke and stand by for a torpedo attack. Left full rudder.” The Johnston’s gunnery officer said later that he could see Evans’ “heart grinning” as he led his ship into the fight against the Japanese battleships and cruisers. The Johnston and her captain were lost, but for two hours they held off the Japanese fleet and enabled the Taffy 3 carriers to live to fight again. Ernest Evans was appropriately posthumously given the Medal of Honor.

Commander Lane E. Napoli

U.S. Naval Reserve (Retired)

On 19 March 1945, the USS Franklin (CV-13) was hit by two Japanese bombs that caused tremendous damage to the ship. The crew saved a ship that should have been lost. If ever courage was displayed, it was on CV-13 that day.


Interview

In the following selection, taken from the third of nine interviews with Paul Stillwell in the admiral's office at the American Committee on East-West Accord in Washington, D.C. in December 1983, Admiral Gayler relates a peculiar incident during the sinking of the Lexington in the Battle of the Coral Sea.

Admiral Gayler: It was at least two and a half or three hours from the time I landed until the time the captain gave the orders to abandon ship. There was a lot of things going on, explosions in the ship. One main plane elevator went up on a column of fire and turned over and landed on the deck with a clang. There was a lot of concern about fighting fires. I was trying — fruitlessly, it turned out — to get another strike organized, because I knew there was at least one undamaged carrier in the Japanese force. At the time, we thought the planes would be able to launch, but we found out we couldn't fuel, so that was the end of that. But I spent a lot of time on that. I was mustering people in the squadron and rushing around taking care of squadron business while all the rest of the fire fighting was going on.

Finally, we were sort of driven by the fire to the extreme end of the ship, the stern. I know you've heard this story, but the ship's service ice cream plant was in the extreme port quarter, and some clown passed the word that there was free ice cream. So while they were abandoning ship, sailors were lining up for free ice cream. Of course, they puked it up as soon as they had been swimming in salt water a little while. People don't realize how young they were. God, they were only 18 or 19-20 at the most.


Craven III DD- 382 - History

Male and Female "Mulatto" Children

The law binding out the children of white women by men of African descent until the age of thiry-one applied to their daughters and granddaughters as well. The law had a far greater impact on females than males. When men completed their indentures, they had the skills needed to earn a living in a trade or as farmers--even if some of their most productive years were behind them. Women who were bound out until thirty-one were likely to have children during their indenture. Each child added another five years to their service, in many cases making them servants for life and tying them to the slave population.

Gideon Gibson, an apprenticed son of Elizabeth Chavis in 1672, had descendants who attended Yale University (as whites) in the 1850s [Sharfstein, The Invisible Line, 54-6]. Many of the apprenticed descendants of his relative Jane Gibson were illegally held as slaves for most of the eighteenth century. Thirteen successfully sued for their freedom in 1792 and 1795, but the remainder remained slaves for life.

Jane Webb of Northampton County, Virginia, sold her service to her master for seven years in 1706 in exchange for marrying her master's slave and for his manumission at the end of her service [Mihalyka, Loose Papers, I:147]. Her son Daniel Webb was a "free Negro" landowner in New Hanover County, North Carolina, in 1765 and left a New Hanover County will in 1769 [DB E:274 original will at N.C. Archives].

One of Daniel's sisters, Ann Webb, married a slave named Weeks, and they were the ancestors of the Weeks family of Northampton County. Another sister, Elizabeth, sold her service to her mistress for sixteen years in exchange for marrying her slave Ezekiel Moses, and they were the ancestors of the Moses family of Northampton County. Still another sister Dinah married Gabriel Manly, the "Mulatto" son of a white woman in Northampton County. They moved to Norfolk County by 1735, soon after the completion of his thirty-one-year indenture, and were landowners in Bertie County, North Carolina, by 1742.

Jacob Chavis, a free-born "Black" man, owned over 1,000 acres of land and two slaves in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, by 1774. His relative Sarah Chavis left a Charlotte County, Virginia will in 1811 asking her executors to free her husband [WB 3:184].

Charity Oxendine, granddaughter of John Oxendine, a "Mulatto" who completed his indenture in Northumberland County, Virginia, had two children who were bound to Thomas White in Bladen County, North Carolina. White sold their labor to Thomas Ingles who took Charity and her two children to Mississippi where he claimed them as slaves [Aslakson, Making Race in the Courtroom, The Legal Construction of Three Races in Early New Orleans, 158, 170, 177, 234, 235, citing Oxendine v. McFarland, case no. 2992, January 9, 1812, Records of the New Orleans City/ Parish Court, 1806-1813, City Archives, New Orleans Public Library, New Orleans, Louisiana]. Several male members of the Oxendine family were landowners in Robeson County, North Carolina, and in adjoining North and South Carolina counties.

The Virginia law binding children until the age of thirty-one was changed in October 1765 to bind the children until the same age as white children, but the change was not retroactive for those already bound out [Hening, XXIV:134].

Replacement of White Servants by Slaves

The replacement of white servants with African slaves, begun in earnest in 1660, continued for more than a century. African slaves had still not completely replaced white servants by 14 October 1773 when the jailer in Prince William County advertised in the Virginia Gazette that he had caught a runaway white servant man:

Committed to Prince William gaol a certain William Rawlings, who says he is the property of Francis Smith of Chesterfield. The owner is desired to pay charges, and take him away.

and he advertised in the same edition that he had jailed a runaway white servant woman:

Committed to the gaol of Prince William a servant woman about 26 years of age, named Mary Richardson has on a short printed cotton gown, and striped Virginia cloth petticoat [Virginia Gazette, Rind, p. 3, col. 3 ]. 5

6 The same advertiser in that edition identified runaway Reuben Dye, as a "Negro man."

Elizabeth Bartlett, an indentured servant from Accomack County, was punished in July 1716 for running away with her mistress's "Negro man named James" [Orders 1714-7, 28]. George Wallis, a white man, and "Negro Dick" were taken up as runaways in Westmoreland County in November 1752 [Orders 1752-5, 41a].

Racial contempt for free African Americans did not fully develop as long as there were white servants in similar circumstances. It was during this period, as late as the end of the eighteenth century, that free African Americans were accepted in some white communities.

Definition of "Mulatto"

On 16 August 1705 John Bunch, "a Mulatto," and Sarah Slayden, a white woman, petitioned the Council of Virginia to allow them to marry because the Minister of Blisland Parish (in New Kent and James City counties) had refused to marry them. The Attorney General was undecided whether the petition "came within the intent of the Law to prevent Negros and White Persons intermarrying" because he could not resolve "Whether the issue begotten on a White woman by a Mulatto man can properly be called a Mulatto, that name as I conceive being only appropriated to the Child of a Negro man begotten upon a white woman or a white man upon a negro woman. [McIlwaine, Executive Journals of the Council, III:28, 31].

In an apparent attempt to clarify the matter of John Bunch's petition, Virginia passed a law in October 1705, "for the clearing all manner of doubts. who shall be accounted a mulatto, Be it enacted and declared. That the child of an Indian and the child, grandchild, or great grandchild, of a negro shall be deemed, accounted, held and taken to be a mulatto" [Hening, The Statutes at Large, III:229-235]. This has been taken by some to mean that there was a community of people of mixed white and Indian ancestry in Virginia. However, no such community existed. And there was no mention of Indians in the October 1785 Virginia law which was enacted specifically for "declaring what persons shall be deemed mulattoes":

every person of whose grandfathers or grandmothers any one is, or shall have been a negro, although all his other progenitors, except that descending from the negro, shall have been white, shall be deemed a mulatto, and so every person who shall have one-fourth or more of negro blood, shall, in like manner, be deemed a mulatto [Hening, The Statutes at Large, XII:184].

But regardless of the legal definition, the word "Mulatto" was most commonly used by the colonial county courts of Virginia and Maryland when they prosecuted thousands of cases of bastardy concerning the children which white women had by slaves of African descent and the cases where their daughters and granddaughters were prosecuted. The few cases in which a woman had a child by an Indian were prosecuted under the same law as white bastardy for which the penalty was a fine or corporal punishment.

African American Communities

A community developed in York County during the colonial period from the descendants of white women who had children by slaves. There were probably many white women serving the gentry in Williamsburg, the colonial capitol. A community also developed in Petersburg when it expaned in the 1790s . There were already a number of families in Chesterfield, Prince George and Dinwiddie counties, but they were joined by free African Americans from other Virginia counties as far away as Accomack and Northampton counties on the Eastern Shore, as well as from several North Carolina counties [Petersburg Register of Free Negroes, 1794-1819]. Several owned their own lots.

However, most communities developed around families who were able to purchase land or obtain grants for land on what was then the frontier. In the early decades of the colony the present-day county of Louisa was the frontier, and the Gibson, Bunch, Collins, Hall, Branham, and Donathan families formed a community there. Present-day Southampton County was the frontier at one time. Bertie, Craven, Granville and Robeson counties in North Carolina were once the frontier, and later the back country of South Carolina and then the states of Tennessee and Louisiana.

Migration From Their Place of Birth

Many families who descended from white women in York County moved to Southampton County and formed a community with adjoining Greensville County that spanned across the border into Northampton, Halifax and Hertford counties, North Carolina, where they were landowners. They included the Allen, Banks, Brooks, Byrd, Cannady, Hawley, and Roberts families.

The Archer, Manley and Driggers families from Northampton County, Virginia, crossed the bay into Norfolk County where they were in the earliest surviving list of taxables that begin in 1730.

The Chavis, Evans, Stewart, Going, Harris, Brandom, Epps, Bunch, Cuttillo, Locklear, Maclin, Dunstan, and Valentine families were among the early settlers of Lunenburg County which was formed in 1748. A free community developed in the part of Lunenburg from which Mecklenburg County was formed that spanned across the border into Warren and Granville counties, North Carolina.

Many free African Americans originated in or moved to Surry County, Virginia, where their deeds, marriage bonds, and wills were recorded in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. They were the Banks, Blizzard, Byrd, Charity, Chavis, Cornish, Debrix, Jeffries, Kersey, Peters, Scott, Sweat, Tann, Valentine, Walden, and Wilson families. Descriptions in the Surry County, Virginia, "Registry of Free Negroes" in the late 18 th and early 19 th century read:

Armstead Peters a Mulatoe man, . aged about 56 years, born free of a yellowish complexion. (6 October 1794).

James Williams a Mulatto man, pretty dark complexion, born of free parents residents of this county, 35 years old . (11 May 1797).

Joseph Byrd son of Joseph and Nelly Byrd free Mulatto persons & residents of this county 20 years old, 5'5" high, bright complexion, short thick hair, straight & well made (27 September 1798).

William Tan, a mulatto man and son of Jemima Tan, a white woman late of this county. He is of bright complexion, has straight black hair, pretty stout and straight made, aged 21 last September (3 December 1801) [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, nos. 1, 21, 35, 136].

Since so many free African Americans were light-skinned, many observers assume that they were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. Only 4 of over 600 families in this history were proven to descend from a white slave owner. The Leviner family of Norfolk County were the descendants of a white slave owner who freed them in 1697. And there were three families who were the children of South Carolina planters: Collins, Holman, and Pendarvis. Like their fathers, they were wealthy slave owners who were accepted in white society.

In 1782 Virginia relaxed its restrictions on manumission, and thereafter manumitted slaves contributed to the increase in the free African American population.

By 1790 free African Americans were concentrated the counties below the James River and the northeastern part of North Carolina [Heads of Families - North Carolina, 10]. This was a pattern of settlement similar to that of newly freed white servants. Land was available in Southside Virginia and in the northeastern part of North Carolina at prices former servants could afford [Morgan, American Slavery, 227-30].


Access options

1 For the only other general account, see Jenks , E. , ‘ The Prerogative Writs in English Law ’ ( 1923 ) 32 Yale L.J. 523 .Google Scholar This article, although sometimes inaccurate, contains several valuable suggestions.

2 Administration of Justice (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1938 (1 & 2 Geo. 6, c. 63).

3 The Act left habeas corpus inviolate as a prerogative writ with the old procedure it was apparently thought that to meddle with habeas corpus might be misconstrued as subversive activity: Jackson , R. M. , Machinery of Justice in England, 37 .Google Scholar ‘Never change native names, for there are Names in every nation God-given, of unexplained power in the mysteries’ (Chaldean Oracle).

4 Of course, all writs are in form commands issuing in the name of the King but only writs that were conceived as standing in a special relationship with the Crown came to be regarded as ‘prerogative’ writs.


Concluding Remarks

The time of onset and the pathogen that will cause the next pandemic are unpredictable. Therefore, pandemic preparedness plans emphasize that non-pharmaceutical interventions should be implemented first to control human-to-human transmission of the pathogen. Ideally, these interventions should adequately control the spread of an infection while minimizing societal and economic disruption. Risks of resurgence can follow once these non-pharmaceutical interventions are lifted. Once available, rapid testing together with contact tracing (Teixeira and Doetsch, 2020) and isolation of infected individuals should be put in place for a more effective response. Furthermore, pharmaceutical interventions including rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests (Hussein et al., 2020), biomarkers for disease stratification (Maertzdorf et al., 2016), broad spectrum antimicrobials/antivirals obtained through in silico drug repurposing (Mangione et al., 2020) or by the use of drugs targeting host cells (Lee and Yen, 2012) as well as new platforms for accelerated vaccine development and production (Rauch et al., 2018) should be developed to improve the global response to the pandemic.


Craven III DD- 382 - History


Norfolk, Virginia - January 2020


Norfolk, Virginia - January 2020


preparing for a dry-dock period for the ship’s Extended Dry-Docking Selected Restricted Availability (EDSRA) at Norfolk, Virginia - March 2019


preparing for a dry-dock period for the ship’s Extended Dry-Docking Selected Restricted Availability (EDSRA) at Norfolk, Virginia - March 2019


preparing for a dry-dock period for the ship’s Extended Dry-Docking Selected Restricted Availability (EDSRA) at Norfolk, Virginia - March 2019


returning to Norfolk, Virginia after deployment - December 2018


Adriatic Sea - November 2018


Larnaca, Cyprus - November 2018


Mediterranean Sea - October 2018


Mediterranean Sea - October 2018


Mediterranean Sea - October 2018


Atlantic Ocean - August 2018


Norfolk, Virginia - July 2018


propulsion auxiliary control console - Mediterranean Sea - July 2018


5th Fleet AOR - July 2018


electric plant control console - 5th Fleet AOR - June 2018


5th Fleet AOR - June 2018


5th Fleet AOR - May 2018


5th Fleet AOR - May 2018


5th Fleet AOR - May 2018


Mediterranean Sea - April 2018


Mediterranean Sea - April 2018


USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) departs Naval Station Norfolk as part of the Harry S. Truman Carrier Strike Group (HSTCSG) deployment in support of
maritime security operations and theater security cooperation efforts in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet areas of responsibility - April 11, 2018


Norfolk, Virginia - April 2018


Norfolk, Virginia - April 2018


Norfolk, Virginia - April 2018


Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Mk-45 5" gun control console - February 2018


Mk-45 Mod.2 5"/54-caliber gun live fire exercise - Atlantic Ocean - February 2018


Norfolk, Virginia - July 2017


USS Arleigh Burke successfully launches an SM-2 Standard Missile from the aft Mk-41 Vertical Launching System (VLS)
as part of their Combat System Ship Qualification Trials (CSSQT) - Atlantic Ocean - July 2016


USS Arleigh Burke successfully launches an SM-2 Standard Missile from the forward Vertical Launching System (VLS) as part of their
Combat System Ship Qualification Trials (CSSQT). The Spanish Navy Ship Cristobol Colon (F-105) and Arleigh Burke are conducting
cooperative air defense test exercises including Tactical Data Link interoperability tests of the latest AEGIS Baseline 9.C1 with a foreign ship,
as well as the first combined Combat Systems Ship Qualification Trial with the Spanish Navy since 2007. Atlantic Ocean - July 2016


returning to Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia - October 2014


refueling at Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal - October 2014


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Mediterranean Sea - October 2014


Suez Canal - September 2014


Cmdr. Camille Flaherty, commanding officer of USS Arleigh Burke, speaks during a presentation ceremony - September 2014


USS Arleigh Burke launches a BGM-109 Tomahawk land attack missile (TLAM) from her forward Mk-41 VLS - Red Sea - September 2014


USS Arleigh Burke launches a BGM-109 Tomahawk land attack missile (TLAM) from her forward Mk-41 VLS - Red Sea - September 2014


Arabian Gulf - September 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 machine gun live fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - September 2014


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - August 2014


central controlling station (machinery) - Arabian Gulf - July 2014


central controlling station (machinery) - Arabian Gulf - July 2014


Arabian Gulf - July 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 machine gun live fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - July 2014


Combat Information Center (CIC) - Arabian Gulf - June 2014


Arabian Gulf - June 2014


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - June 2014


Manama, Bahrain - May 2014


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - May 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 25mm machine gun fire exercise - Arabian Gulf - May 2014


Manama, Bahrain - April 2014


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Gulf of Oman - March 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 25mm machine gun fire exercise - Gulf of Oman - March 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 25mm machine gun fire exercise - Gulf of Oman - March 2014


Mediterranean Sea - March 2014


Mk-15 Phalanx CIWS ammunition load - Atlantic Ocean - February 2014


Mk-38 Mod.2 25mm machine gun maintenance - Atlantic Ocean - February 2014


Atlantic Ocean - December 2013


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire exercise - Atlantic Ocean - December 2013


approaching Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia - September 2013


returning to Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia - July 2012


returning to Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia - July 2012


Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - February 2012


Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - February 2012


Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - February 2012


departing Norfolk, Virginia - January 2012


during exercise Joint Warrior 11-2 - North Minch - October 2011


during exercise Joint Warrior 11-2 - Faslane, Scotland - October 2011


Mk-45 Mod.2 gun fire during exercise Joint Warrior 11-2 - Atlantic Ocean - September 2011


sailors prepare sonobuoys during exercise Joint Warrior 11-2 - Atlantic Ocean - September 2011


Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - July 2007


Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - July 2007


Faslane, Scotland - June 2005


Faslane, Scotland - June 2005


returning to Norfolk, Virginia - June 2003


Central Command AOR - March 2003


Mediterranean Sea - March 2003


October 2000


Norfolk Naval Base - April 1996


April 1994


April 1994


November 1993


Port Everglades, Florida - October 1993


Port Everglades, Florida - October 1993


Port Everglades, Florida - October 1993


Adriatic Sea - March 1993


sea trials - June 1991


sea trials - June 1991


sea trials - June 1991


RIM-66C Standard Missile SM-2MR test launch - 1991


electric plant control console - 1991


June 1991


Bath Iron Works, Maine - 1990


Bath Iron Works, Maine - undated


christening & launching ceremony at Bath Iron Works, Maine - September 16, 1989

After being commissioned, and throughout 1992, Arleigh Burke conducted extensive testing at sea. As is often the case with new ship classes, U.S. Navy officers and shipyard engineers encountered a number of problems with some shipboard systems that required the attention of this warship's design and production agencies. An additional phase of testing was added to verify the effectiveness of the modifications made to these systems - modifications incorporated into later destroyers of the Arleigh Burke class.

Following her initial operational testing, Arleigh Burke was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea in 1993, serving as the "Green Crown" during Operation Provide Promise. During her second deployment in 1995, Arleigh Burke steamed in the Mediterranean Sea as the "Red Crown" in support of the No-Fly Zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her third cruise, in 1998, she steamed in the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Red Sea, and Black Sea, as a participant in numerous American and Allied exercises. During her fourth cruise in 2000–2001, Arleigh Burke saw service in the Mediterranean and Red Seas and in the Persian Gulf, enforcing United Nations sanctions against Iraq and conducting exercises with allied naval partners.

On her fifth deployment in 2003, Arleigh Burke and the other units of the USS Theodore Roosevelt-led carrier battle group participated in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. During this wartime cruise, Arleigh Burke fired Tomahawk missile strikes against targets in Iraq, escorted merchant ships and naval auxiliaries through geographic choke-points, and carried out "leadership interdiction" operations in the northern Arabian Sea. She also undertook counter-piracy missions in the Gulf of Aden. This cruise, which lasted from January through June 2003, saw Arleigh Burke at sea over 92 percent of the time.

In March 2003 she was assigned to Destroyer Squadron 2.

Arleigh Burke has earned one Navy Unit Commendation, three Meritorious Unit Commendations, three Battle Efficiency E Awards, the National Defense Service Medal, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the Kuwait Liberation Medal, and five Sea Service Deployment Ribbons.

As a member of Destroyer Squadron 22, Arleigh Burke operated with the USS George H.W. Bush Carrier Strike Group under the direction of the Commander, Carrier Group 2.

In May 2007, Arleigh Burke ran what the Navy called a "soft aground" off Cape Henry Light at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay.[1] Her captain, Commander Esther J. McClure, was relieved of her command shortly thereafter as a result of "loss of confidence in her ability to command".

In October 2007, Arleigh Burke was involved in anti-pirate operations in 2007 in Somalia.

In 2009, Arleigh Burke was deployed to the eastern coast of Africa in support of AFRICOM's Africa Partnership Station. The ship represented the United States during a port visit on the island nation of Seychelles where they played a role in securing a status of forces agreement between the two countries.

In August 2010, Arleigh Burke entered the BAE Systems Ship Repair shipyard in Norfolk, Virginia for DDG Modernization, a program to upgrade the ship's systems and to extend the service life to 40 years.

On 23 September 2014 Arleigh Burke took part in the 2014 military intervention against ISIS, firing Tomahawk missiles on targets in Syria while the ship was in the Red Sea.

Arleigh Albert Burke, the grandson of a Swedish immigrant, was born on a farm in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado on 19 October 1901, the first of six children. He attended a one room elementary school through the eighth grade and then high school in Boulder. Deciding early that farming fitted neither his talents nor desires, he sought and received a congressional appointment to the US Naval Academy.

He entered the Naval Academy in June 1919 and graduated on 7 June 1923, standing 71 in a class of 413. On the afternoon of Graduation Day, he was married in the Naval Academy Chapel to Roberta Gorsuch of Washington, D.C. who became his beloved wife, his best friend and lifelong companion, and, at age 97, his only survivor.

Following graduation Burke served in the battleship USS ARIZONA (BB-39) for five years. Thereafter, he served afloat in fleet auxiliary USS PROCYON (AG-11), heavy cruiser USS CHESTER (CA-27), fleet auxiliary USS ANTARES and fleet auxiliary USS ARGONNE. Ashore he completed postgraduate study in Ordnance Engineering and served two tours in the Bureau of Ordnance.

In June 1937, he was ordered to his first destroyer as prospective Executive Officer of USS CRAVEN (DD-382), under construction in Boston Navy Yard. In August 1938 - early in his sixteenth year of commissioned service - he was promoted to Lieutenant Commander and in June 1939 took command of USS MUGFORD (DD-389), sister ship to CRAVEN. During his tour, MUGFORD excelled in gunnery and participated in the development of high speed night gunnery and torpedo attack tactics. After little more than a year in command, Burke was relieved and reassigned to the Naval Gun Factory in Washington, D.C. and was there when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Despite his persistent requests for sea duty, he remained there until the end of 1942.

In January 1943, he was awarded command of DESTROYER DIVISION 43 and hoisted his flag in USS WALLER (DD-466) which, in March 1943, blew up a Japanese destroyer in the Central Solomons. In May, he shifted to command of DESTROYER DIVISION 44, flagship USS CONWAY (DD-507), where he received wounds while escorting convoys in the Solomons. Captain Burke took over DESTROYER SQUADRON 12 in August 1943 and DESTROYER SQUADRON 23 (Little Beavers) in October. In addition Burke commanded one of the squadron's two divisions, DESTROYER DIVISION 45, with his flag in USS CHARLES AUSBURNE (DD-570).

In October, Burke was detached from DESRON TWELVE and ordered to command DESRON TWENTY THREE. During the next four months the squadron participated in 22 separate engagements and destroyed one Japanese cruiser, nine destroyers, one submarine, several smaller ships and approximately 30 aircraft. Between operations the U.S. surface combatants exercised at night high speed tactics, where, thus far, the Japanese had excelled. Burke was a leader in this effort.

Notable among these actions was the battle of Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainveille, in early November and later that month the Battle of Cape St. George, New Ireland, where Burke led his destroyers in night torpedo attacks on Japanese surface forces. This battle is regarded by many naval historians as the perfect naval engagement. He was awarded the Navy Cross for "extraordinary heroism in operations against an armed enemy" in the Battle of Cape St. George. The ships of the time were capable of 34 knots, but while enroute to a rendezvous prior to that battle, a boiler casualty had limited his group's top speed to 30 knots. When the fleet commander signalled him to make best speed, they mustered an extra knot and he answered "Proceeding at 31 knots" The response, addressed to "31-knot" Burke was a "rib", but captured the imagination of the press and the public and conveyed the image of a dashing, hard-charging combat commander - an accurate description of Arleigh Burke. Early in the new year the decision was made to bypass Rabaul in favor of the Admiralty Islands, 300 miles farther west.

DESRON 23 supported landings at Cape Gloucester, in the Green Islands, and participated in the bombardment of Rabaul and its backup base at Kavieng. On the morning of 22 February, Burke's destroyers sank a large Japanese naval tug and rescued 73 survivors. When the captain, who had chosen to fight rather than capitulate, was not among the survivors, Burke ordered a brief prayer service in his honor, an action which gained him great respect in post-war Japan.

In March, Burke, to his great surprise, received orders to report to Commander Carrier Division THREE, Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher, as Chief of Staff. Mitscher had recently become Commander Fast Carrier Task Forces Pacific (CTF 58) and was one of the great naval leaders of W.W.II. Burke was disappointed in the assignment which took him away from his beloved destroyers Mitscher was equally disappointed to find that his highly capable aviator chief of staff was to be relieved by a surface officer. (Admiral Ernest King had directed that a surface officer commanding a fleet or task force must have an aviator chief of staff and vice versa.)

Burke and Mitscher soon formed an exceptionally close relationship which was to endure throughout the war and into the postwar years. During the next fifteen months, TF 58, with four carrier task groups, roamed the western Pacific, striking enemy airfields, shipping, and industrial facilities in their island strongholds in the Philippines and on Formosa and Okinawa and in the Japanese home islands. The task force participated in all the major actions of the Pacific war the assault on the Marianas - Guam, Tinian, and Saipan - in June and the ensuing battle of the Philippine Sea the return to the Philippines and the battle of Leyte Gulf in October the invasion of the Carolines and the capture of Iwo Jima in February and March of 1945 and the invasion of Okinawa in April and May.

On the morning of 11 May, Mitscher's flagship, USS BUNKER HILL, operating in the vicinity of Okinawa, was hit and grievously damaged by two kamikaze aircraft. Flag spaces, including the flag office and radio central, were hard hit and a large number of the TF 58 staff were killed. Burke led the effort to rescue survivors, helping to drag the wounded and injured men from radio central. Because of the severity of the damage to BUNKER HILL, Mitscher, Burke, and the remainder of the staff transferred to ENTERPRISE. Three days later ENTERPRISE, too, was hit in a kamikaze attack and put out of action. The staff again shifted flagships, this time to USS RANDOLPH. On 28 May 1945, Mitscher, Burke, and the staff of TF 58 were relieved and departed for the United States. For them, combat operations had ended. Burke, who had earlier been promoted to the wartime rank of Commodore, reverted to his permanent rank of Captain and was reassigned to the Navy Department in Washington to head a new section for defense against kamikaze attacks. He was there when the war ended.

After a brief tour in the Bureau of Ordnance, Burke returned to sea with VADM Mitscher early in 1946 as Chief of Staff of the Eighth Fleet, being formed for Mediterranean duty. In midsummer, plans for deployment of the fleet were placed on hold and Admiral Mitscher was ordered to relieve Admiral Jonas Ingram as CINCLANTFLT which he did in September. Burke continued to serve as his Chief of Staff until February 1947 when Mitscher, who had been ill throughout much of the war and had never regained his health, suffered a heart attack and died. Thus ended the long, close relationship of two of the great combat leaders of WWII.

Reassigned to the Navy's General Board in Washington after Mitscher's death, Burke, recognizing that his experience had been limited through necessity to warfighting skills, began a serious effort to broaden his understanding and knowledge of history, economics, science, politics, and international relations. He foresaw a need to study and define the future national security interests of the United States and the role of the Navy in pursuing those interests. This eventually led to a comprehensive paper, completed in mid-1948, entitled "National Security and Naval Contributions for the Next Ten Years." The paper, as such, had little impact but it contributed mightily to the development of Arleigh Burke as a strategic thinker and to his reputation.

In July 1948, Burke took command of the light cruiser, USS HUNTINGTON, then deployed to the Sixth Fleet. After fewer than six months in command, he received an unexpected set of orders to report immediately to the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations in Washington to head the OPNAV section which dealt with matters concerning unification of the armed services. There he became a key player in what was to become known as "the revolt of the Admirals." A primary issue was the strategic role and relative capability of the Air Force B-36 bomber vis-à-vis the Navy's proposed supercarrier. In hearings before the House Armed Services Committee in October 1949, Secretary of the Navy Mathews led off by supporting Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson's position favoring the B-36 and relegating Navy aviation to a secondary role. He was followed by CINCPACFLT, Admiral Arthur Radford by the naval leaders of WWII - King, Nimitz, Halsey, Spruance and others including Burke and by the CNO, Admiral Louis Denfield. The naval officers uniformly took issue with the SECDEF and SECNAV position. (Burke and his small staff had been instrumental in orchestrating the Navy position.) Following the hearings, Secretary Mathews forced Admiral Denfield into retirement prior to completion of his term and attempted to remove Burke's name from the promotion list to Rear Admiral. This latter action was over-ruled by President Truman. The Committee Report of 1 March 1950 offered no opinion on the B-36/aircraft carrier dispute and concluded that the government should accept the advice of the military professionals of each service regarding weapons.

By the time the Committee report was issued the new CNO, Admiral Forrest Sherman, had disbanded Burke's OPNAV office and Burke had been reassigned as the Navy representative on the Defense Research and Development Board. He was promoted to Rear Admiral on 15 July 1950 and in August ordered to the staff of Commander, Naval Forces Far East as Deputy Chief of Staff. The Korean War was, by then, in its third month and there was an urgent need for a senior officer with warfighting experience on the staff (as well as for a trusted emissary who could, and would, report directly to Admiral Sherman on the conduct of operations. Burke did this, but with the full knowledge of VADM Joy, COMNAVFE.) Burke arrived on station just in time to participate in the planning for the Inchon landing and for support of the subsequent drive north to the Chinese border. The UN offensive ended in November when the Red Chinese armies crossed the Yalu River and drove the allied forces back down the peninsula. The battle line eventually stabilized in mid-January just south of Seoul.

After a brief sojourn in command of Cruiser Division FIVE, Burke was again ordered to Korea on "temporary duty" to join the UN team, headed by VADM Joy, appointed to negotiate an armistice with the North Koreans. He remained in this assignment as one of the two principal negotiators for the UN until a cease fire line was established in November. Returning to Washington, Burke assumed duty as Director of the Strategic Plans Division in OPNAV. Following the inauguration of President Eisenhower in January 1953 and the introduction of the "New Look" defense policy, Burke was again called upon to define and defend the Navy's roles, missions, and command structure and philosophy. He remained until March 1954, when he was relieved and reassigned as Commander, Cruiser Division SIX. He was there for the rest of the year until ordered to duty as Commander Destroyer Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMDESLANT). Four months later in May 1955, he was selected over 99 officers senior to him - every four and three star officer in the Navy and a number of senior two star officers - to relieve Admiral Robert Carney as the Chief of Naval Operations.

Upon becoming CNO on 17 August 1955, Admiral Burke could look back upon a naval career of 32 years in which he had served his apprenticeship at sea, completed postgraduate study and acquired technical expertise in shore assignments, demonstrated brilliance and achieved fame as a wartime commander, gained broad experience in the application of military power and, through self-study, in the wider fields of history, economics, politics, and national security affairs. He was a tough taskmaster who insisted on the best efforts of his people and was intolerant of laxity and poor work. He worked extraordinarily long hours and demanded the same from his staff. He believed that an overworked staff was more productive than one that worked routine hours. He was modest, however, about his own achievements and loyal to his associates. One of his greatest attributes was his ability to set clear objectives and goals and then allow his subordinates leeway to achieve them without interference or undue supervision. He was well and thoroughly prepared to lead the Navy. He was reappointed to a second two year term in 1957, a third in 1959, and declined a fourth in 1961.

One of Burke's first and foremost priorities as CNO was the development of a solid propellant fleet ballistic missile. He established the Special Projects Office, appointed RADM William Raborn as head, and gave him wide latitude to accomplish the objective. Polaris was the result. Another priority was construction of nuclear powered surface ships - carriers, cruisers, and destroyers. USS LONG BEACH and USS ENTERPRISE were authorized and built, and USS BAINBRIDGE and USS TRUXTUN followed. He pressed for conversion of cruisers to employ guided missiles and their introduction in other ships to defend against air attack. Antisubmarine warfare programs were accelerated and an Atlantic Fleet Antisubmarine Defense Force was established to test and evaluate sensors and weapons, and to develop tactics and coordination of air, surface, and submarine forces. He took pains to ensure that the Navy achieved and maintained a high state of readiness. He was the chief spokesman for the Navy and was tireless in his efforts to educate the public on sea power and the Navy. He functioned as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and continued, not always successfully, his fight against further centralization in the Department of Defense.


Watch the video: Mysteries of History: The Gothic Treaty of 382