Shedding Light on Newgrange: 5,000-Year-Old Sun Trap May Not Be All That it Seems

Shedding Light on Newgrange: 5,000-Year-Old Sun Trap May Not Be All That it Seems


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Maybe the solstice sunlight-trapping “roof box” in Ireland’s ancient Newgrange stone monument is not a 5,000-year-old astronomical feature but rather a construct that is just 50 years old. The box on the huge structure’s roof allows sunlight to shine into the main chamber at sunrise for more than 17 minutes between December 19 and 23.

But a new report says the roof box is a hoax built onto the ancient structure in the 1960s when the late Michael O’Kelly, an archaeologist, did excavations and reconstructions there, says The Irish Times.

Since Professor O’Kelly “discovered” the mid-winter solstice sunlight shining into Newgrange in 1967, the monument has been the subject of controversy and debate among archaeologists, The Irish Times says.

Many experts are also skeptical of the quart wall that was built between 1967 and 1974 per Professor O’Kelly’s interpretation.

Michael Gibbons, a former Ireland state archaeologist, has recently published a paper in the journal Emania that says excavations and renovation of the passage tomb 50 years ago, included the roof box that allows sunlight to be “trapped” to renew life around the new year.

Mr. Gibbons and his nephew Myles say the significance of the entire structure as an Iron Age monument has been discounted in favor of the storyline that Newgrange is a tomb built around 5,000 years ago.

The structure is visited by many people around the solstice, and Newgrange’s sun show makes it one of the most famous megalithic tombs in the world. The alignment of the structure allows sunlight to be captured at sunrise around the solstice, when a thin light beam shines from the roof box to illuminate the entire inner chamber.

Newgrange passage tomb with the sunlight shining in ( Wikimedia Commons photo /Dentp)

Professor O’Kelly said the tomb was in much the same state as it was during the Neolithic era but that during the later Iron Age people constructed an enclosure on the roof and altered the profile of the mound.

The Irish Times reports: “Mr. Gibbons says the ‘roof box’ which was central to capturing the winter light has ‘not a shred of authenticity,’ and was ‘fabricated’ during reconstruction in the 1960s.”

Mr. Gibbons’ article in Emania states that Roman artifacts and dog and horse remains found inside Newgrange and on the grounds outside are evidence of the mortuary purpose of the site, where Irish elites with links to the Romans in Britain may have been buried.

Some of the artifacts from the Roman era include two gold torcs, a brooch, a gold ring, pendants, a bracelet and some coins.

The Newgrange gold hoard in the British Museum (Jononmac46/ Wikimedia Commons )

Another expert and author of a book about Newgrange who has analyzed the site, Richard Hensey, agreed that there was Iron Age activity at Newgrange and allowed that Professor O’Kelly emphasized that era less.

Dr. Hensey said, though, that the roof box is not a recent construct and several studies indicated it does date back to the Stone Age of 5,000 years ago.

He added that the roof box was elevated when upright stones were straightened during reconstructions headed by Professor O’Kelly.

The number of bone fragments found inside Newgrange hardly constitute evidence of a communal burial chamber, Ancient Origins reported in 2013 in a two-part article . In total, the bones of only five individuals were found inside the monument during excavations in the 1960s. Some bones could have been taken away after the rediscovery of the entrance to the passage and chamber in 1699.

But at over 85 meters (278 feet) in diameter, and containing more than 250,000 tons of stone and earth, this monument would seem such a lavish and grandiose tomb for a few people, if that were indeed its sole purpose.

Featured image: December 21, the longest night and shortest day of the year, is a special event at Newgrange in County Meath, Ireland. This photo was shot August 24, 2014. (Photo by Paul A. Byrne/ Wikimedia Commons )

By Mark Miller


Explorator 19.40

Thanks to Arthur Shippee, Dave Sowdon, Edward Rockstein, Kurt Theis,
John McMahon, Barnea Selavan, Joseph Lauer, Mike Ruggeri, Hernan Astudillo,
Barbara Saylor Rodgers, Bob Heuman, David Critchley, Rick Heli,
Richard Campbell, Richard C. Griffiths, and Ross W. Sargent for
headses upses this week (as always hoping I have left no one out).
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EARLY HOMINIDS
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Feature on Neanderthal intelligence:

Interview with John Anthony Capra on Neanderthals:

More on Neanderthal rock collecting:

Evidence of use of pottery to cook veggies:

Libyan archaeologists have made a deal with Durham University:

Feature/slideshow on colonial North Africa:

Lamps stolen from Cairo’s El Refai Mosque have been recovered:

Urartian remains from Armenia:

A 3500 years bp jewellery workshop from Kuwait:

Byzantine burials from Mardin are now open to the public:

A possible medieval synagogue near Huqoq:

What Jodi Magness is up to:

Plans/hopes to protect Yemen’s activities from war damage:

More on that 2700 years bp ‘goddess sculpture’ found in the waters off Turkey:

More on the Timna Valley mines:

… and also for some possible Roman foundations in a park in Chichester:

A Roman shipwreck off the Balearic Islands:

I think I missed mentioning this Roman bust which appeared after a storm on Crete a couple weeks ago:

An Alexander-era tomb has opened to the public in Thessaloniki:

Expropriation activities for a Roman theatre in Izmir are almost done:

Funding for Arbeia Roman Fort:

Latest hype that we’re finally going to be able to read the Herculaneum Papyri:

Apparently more mosaics have been found in Zeugma (the photo in this one is old, though):

Feature on gladiator-related remains in Pisidian Antioch (some things lost in translation, I suspect):

Ten ancient works everyone should read:

Interesting partnership with Seamus Heaney:

What Bryan Ward-Perkins is up to:

What Charles E Muntz is up to:

A few items this week try to draw parallels between Rome and Trump:

James Cameron’s Atlantis thing is getting some hype:

… while a study proposes a new way of looking at paleolithic art:

A 2600 years bp elite Celtic burial from Germany:

A Saxon workshop in Somerset:

A Viking boat burial from Scotland:

… and I think we mentioned this Viking manor near Birka:

Arguing over a purported Viking inscription:

Feature on assorted Viking hoards:

Medieval(ish) friars’ burials from a building site in Cambridge:

A 17th century shopping list find:

Studying leprosy from a medieval pilgrim’s remains in Winchester:

Plans to map the ‘Outlander effect’:

We had this ‘priest hole’ story a few months ago, I think:

George III’s planned abdication letter has been made public:

… along with a pile of other documents:

English Heritage is going to court over a planned medieval dig:

The BBC is under fire for a documentary on Orkney:

OpEddish on the Stonehenge tunnel:

More on that Dark Ages fort find in Scotland:

A 2000 years bp doll from Osaka:

Four 19th century shipwrecks in the Coral Sea off Australia:

On the diet of Australia’s early colonists:

Hot on the heels of blaming humans for megafauna extinction in Australia, we again (of course) get the suggestion climate change was a factor:

The Indus Civilization had to adapt to climate change too:

Again we hear of concerns for Mohenjodaro:

Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog:

New Zealand Archaeology eNews:

A wildfire in Wyoming has revealed a major Shoshone site:

Revolutionary War artifacts dug up in the Gloucester Point dig in Virginia:

Interesting Underground Railroad-related feature:

More on pushing back the date of human arrival in North America:

A Maya ‘superhighway’ in the Guatemalan jungle:

Studying Mayan pyramids in Guatemala:

Studying geoglyphs in Chile:

More on lost cities in Honduras:

—–
Mike Ruggeri’s Ancient Americas Breaking News:

Studying violence and inequality in human history:

Studying the effects of volcanic eruptions:

Feature on Maria Sibylla Merian:

On polygamy in the Mormon Church:

A really, really, really overdue library book:

The Panacea Museum has an interesting story:

Review of a biography of Arthur Conan Doyle:

A history of wedding announcements:

Pondering how museums should respond to art smuggling scandals:

Vatican Museums have a new website:

Plans for a linguistics museum in New York:

… and some details of what was recovered:

Looted/fake Syrian items are showing up in Denmark apparently:

Fake Khmer antiquities are showing up too:

Latest Culture Crime News:

anonymous swiss collector:

Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues:

Illicit Cultural Property:

A stolen Buddha statue will be returned to South Korea:

Lebanon returned a 4000 years bp item to Egypt:

More Nazi-looted art returns:

… and the one which should appear later today:

Taygete Atlantis excavations blogs aggregator:

http://www.radioscribe.com/bknspade.htm
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Shedding Light on Newgrange: 5,000-Year-Old Sun Trap May Not Be All That it Seems - History

Antibiotics - colds and flu . treat infections that are caused by a virus. Colds and flu are caused by viruses. If you . J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012 .

Ceballos, Diana Mead, Kenneth Ramsey, Jessica

Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee's physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing . We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing , providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems.

Ceballos, Diana Mead, Kenneth Ramsey, Jessica

Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee’s physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing . We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing , providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

Maejima, Yuji Makino, Tomoyuki Takano, Hiroyuki Kamiya, Takashi Sekiya, Naoki Itou, Tadashi

We conducted a pot experiment to evaluate the effect of soil washing with CaCl(2) on Cd absorption by two soybean cultivars. The results were as follows: (1) Soybean growth was not significantly different in washed and unwashed soils, but the seed Cd concentration for both cultivars decreased significantly, up to 25%, in the washed soils compared with the unwashed soils. (2) In the washed soils, the Cd concentration in the soil solution indicated an obviously lower value from sowing to the flowering stage however, the change in Cd speciation was not evident in the CaCl(2)- washed soil solution. Consequently, the effect of soil washing using CaCl(2) on Cd-contaminated paddy soils can be expected to continue after a CaCl(2)- washed paddy field is converted to an upland field.

Du, Yong Cai, Kefeng Chen, Song Wang, Hongxia Shen, Shirley Z Donelson, Richard Lin, Tong

Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

Peter Pescatore Phil Carbone

This program covered the development of two separate products an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for bothmore » dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. Butterfield, Andrew Caldwell, Dustin D.

This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency overmore » heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.« less

Chlorine is widely used by the fresh and fresh-cut produce industries to reduce microbial populations and to prevent potential pathogen cross contamination during produce washing . However, the organic materials released from produce quickly react with chlorine and degrade its efficacy for pathogen i.

Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni Louwagie, Johanna Pigeon, Olivier Spanoghe, Pieter

Background One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is “Savon de Marseille”, because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized “CIPAC washing agent”. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Methods Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. Results The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Conclusion Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets

Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold . The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to July Week 1, 2010), EMBASE (1990 to July 2010) and Current Contents (1994 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally-induced common cold . We reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials (394 trial participants) were included. Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold , hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomized trials with a standardised treatment

Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold . The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to March 2013) and Current Contents (1994 to March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally induced common cold . The two review authors independently reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. We included six trials (394 trial participants). Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold , hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomised trials with a standardised treatment modality are conducted.

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing . Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controllingmore » the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.« less

Roohafza, Hamidreza Pirnia, Afsaneh Sadeghi, Masoumeh Toghianifar, Nafiseh Talaei, Mohammad Ashrafi, Mahmood

To investigate anxiety levels in two groups of children exposed to nurses with white vs. coloured clothing in a university hospital in Iran. Hospitalisation causes anxiety in children and it is documented that nurses have an important role in alleviating children's distress and anxiety. Nurses characteristics, including their clothing is a factor that affects quality of care through child-nurse relationship. Clinical trial. Children (n = 92) aged 7-15 years old hospitalised for 3-5 days in paediatric surgery ward were exposed to nurses in white or coloured clothing . Children's anxiety was assessed on admission and at discharge using Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. Children exposed to white nursing uniforms showed higher anxiety levels compared with children exposed to coloured nursing clothing (p clothing , female sex, age >11 years old (guidance school) and living in families with more than four members were predictors of lower global anxiety scores. Providing a child-friendly environment through colourful nursing clothing can promote nurses' relationship with hospitalised children. This can satisfy children's expectations of the nursing care and alleviates the need for meeting ideals of nursing care through wearing a white nursing uniform provided that standards of nursing care are favoured. Using colourful nursing clothing in paediatric wards reduces anxiety as a psychological parameter which delays improvement and provides a child-friendly environment that helps promotion of quality of nursing care.

Hidajat, R. L. L. G. Wibowo, Arifin, Z. Suyitno

A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour with the help of a rhinotherm (an equipment designed to deliver heated water vapour to a person's nasal cavity), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing a. symptoms b. viral shedding c. nasal resistance after a natural or experimentally induced common cold . We searched MEDLINE with MeSH headings: common cold , rhinopharyngitis, inhalation, steam, heated vapour, rhinothermy, till July 1999. EMBASE, Current Contents, review articles, cross references were also searched. Attempts were also made to contact the manufacturers for any unpublished data. Randomized trials using heated water vapour in a standardized way in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimental induction of rhinovirus infection were included in the review. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion / exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials, abstracts with inadequate outcome description were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. The results of a systematic review of six trials with 319 participants, support the use of warm vapour inhalations in the common cold in terms of relief of symptoms (Odds Ratio with 95 % CI 0.31, 0.16-0.60, Relative risk 0.56, 0.4-0. 79). Results on symptom score indices were equivocal. None of the studies demonstrated a worsening of clinical symptom scores. One study demonstrated increased nasal resistance one week after steam inhalation in contrast to an earlier study which showed improvement in the nasal resistance. There was no evidence of decreased viral shedding measured by virus isolation in the nasal secretions (Tyrrell 1989) or measurement of viral titres in nasal washings among treatment group. The rhinovirus titres in the nasal washings from the treatment group were the same as those of the placebo group on day one prior to the treatment and on all four days after the treatment. The area under curve

Most ambulatory victims of a terrorist chemical attack will have exposure to vapor only. The study objective was to measure the duration of chemical vapor release from various types of clothing . A chemical agent was simulated using methyl salicylate (MeS), which has similar physical properties to sulfur mustard and was the agent used in the U.S. Army's Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST). Vapor concentration was measured with a Smiths Detection Advanced Portable Detector (APD)-2000 unit. The clothing items were exposed to vapor for 1 hour in a sealed cabinet vapor concentration was measured at the start and end of each exposure. Clothing was then removed and assessed every 5 minutes with the APD-2000, using a uniform sweep pattern, until readings remained 0. Concentration and duration of vapor release from clothing varied with clothing composition and construction. Lightweight cotton shirts and jeans had the least trapped vapor down outerwear, the most. Vapor concentration near the clothing often increased for several minutes after the clothing was removed from the contaminated environment. Compression of thick outerwear released additional vapor. Mean times to reach 0 ranged from 7 minutes for jeans to 42 minutes for down jackets. This simulation model of chemical vapor release demonstrates persistent presence of simulant vapor over time. This implies that chemical vapor may be released from the victims' clothing after they are evacuated from the site of exposure, resulting in additional exposure of victims and emergency responders. Insulated outerwear can release additional vapor when handled. If a patient has just moved to a vapor screening point, immediate assessment before additional vapor can be released from the clothing can lead to a false-negative assessment of contamination.

Heudorf, Ursel Gasteyer, Stefanie Müller, Maria Serra, Nicole Westphal, Tim Reinheimer, Claudia Kempf, Volkhard

Background: In accordance with the German Infection Protection Act, the treatment and handling of laundry was checked by the Public Health Department in 2016 in all Frankfurt nursing homes with special focus on the staff’s clothing . Methods: On-site visits and surveys were conducted in all 44 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, and random microbiological examinations of 58 reprocessed and 58 already worn protective gowns were performed to determine the numbers of the colony forming units (cfu) and microbiological differentiation of the pathogen species. Results: 41 (93%) of the 44 homes tested had contracted a certified laundry service. 23 (52%) of the homes also ran a laundry of their own in 21 of these, laundry was reprocessed and disinfected in an industrial washing machine. Regular technical or microbiological tests were carried out in 16 or 12 of the home-owned laundries, respectively. Only 31 homes (70%) provided uniforms for their employees. The staff’s clothing was processed in 25 homes by the external laundry, in 9 homes by the internal laundry, and in 12 homes, the nursing staff had to do this privately at their own home. Used coats exhibited significantly higher contamination than freshly prepared ones (median: 80 vs. 2 cfu/25 cm2 P 95 percentile: 256 cfu vs. 81 cfu/25 cm2). Clothing prepared in private homes showed significantly higher contamination rates than those washed in the certified external laundry or in the nursing homes themselves (Median: 16 cfu/25 cm2 vs. 0.5–1 cfu/25 cm2). Conclusion: Considering various publications on pathogen transfers and outbreaks due to contaminated laundry in medical facilities, the treatment of laundry, in particular the uniforms, must be given more attention, also in nursing homes for the elderly. The private reprocessing of occupational clothing by the employees at home must be rejected on hygienic principles, and is furthermore prohibited by law in Germany. PMID:29238652

Heudorf, Ursel Gasteyer, Stefanie Müller, Maria Serra, Nicole Westphal, Tim Reinheimer, Claudia Kempf, Volkhard

Background: In accordance with the German Infection Protection Act, the treatment and handling of laundry was checked by the Public Health Department in 2016 in all Frankfurt nursing homes with special focus on the staff's clothing . Methods: On-site visits and surveys were conducted in all 44 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, and random microbiological examinations of 58 reprocessed and 58 already worn protective gowns were performed to determine the numbers of the colony forming units (cfu) and microbiological differentiation of the pathogen species. Results: 41 (93%) of the 44 homes tested had contracted a certified laundry service. 23 (52%) of the homes also ran a laundry of their own in 21 of these, laundry was reprocessed and disinfected in an industrial washing machine. Regular technical or microbiological tests were carried out in 16 or 12 of the home-owned laundries, respectively. Only 31 homes (70%) provided uniforms for their employees. The staff's clothing was processed in 25 homes by the external laundry, in 9 homes by the internal laundry, and in 12 homes, the nursing staff had to do this privately at their own home. Used coats exhibited significantly higher contamination than freshly prepared ones (median: 80 vs. 2 cfu/25 cm 2 P 95 percentile: 256 cfu vs. 81 cfu/25 cm 2 ). Clothing prepared in private homes showed significantly higher contamination rates than those washed in the certified external laundry or in the nursing homes themselves (Median: 16 cfu/25 cm 2 vs. 0.5-1 cfu/25 cm 2 ). Conclusion: Considering various publications on pathogen transfers and outbreaks due to contaminated laundry in medical facilities, the treatment of laundry, in particular the uniforms, must be given more attention, also in nursing homes for the elderly. The private reprocessing of occupational clothing by the employees at home must be rejected on hygienic principles, and is furthermore prohibited by law in Germany.

34 insulated garments excluded cold -water entry, tightness-of-fit was not an important factor in thermal performance. The "dry" garments in this study were. Supplemertary Notes I 16. Abstruct The puirpose of this study was to caopare the protection against immersion hypothermia provided by various types of Coat. survival tize pro ons fron calmr-veter studies . 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Hypothermia Rough water Immersion Protective clothing Sea

Kohler, Petra Renggli, Samuel Lüthi, Christoph

Health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries are high-risk settings, and face special challenges to achieving sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene ( WASH ) services. Our applied interdisciplinary research conducted in India and Uganda analyzed six dimensions of WASH services in selected health care facilities, including menstrual hygiene management. To be effective, WASH monitoring strategies in health care facilities must include gender sensitive measures. We present a novel strategy, showing that applied gender sensitive multitool assessments are highly productive in assessments of WASH services and facilities from user and provider perspectives. We discuss its potential for applications at scale and as an area of future research.


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